reinforcement

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Related to Conditioned reinforcer: partial reinforcement, Continuous Reinforcement

reinforcement

 [re″in-fors´ment]
the increasing of force or strength. In the psychological theory of behaviorism, presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses. This is central in operant conditioning.



Positive reinforcement consists of a stimulus that is added to the environment immediately after the desired response has been exhibited. It serves to strengthen the response, that is, to increase the likelihood of its occurring again. Examples of such reinforcement are food, money, a special privilege, or some other reward that is satisfying to the subject.

Negative reinforcement consists of a stimulus that is withdrawn (subtracted) from the environment immediately after the response, so that the withdrawal serves to strengthen the response.
reinforcement of reflex strengthening of a reflex response by the patient's performance of some unrelated action during elicitation of the reflex.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'ment),
1. An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes a fist tightly or pulls against flexed fingers or contracts some other set of muscles.
See also: Jendrassik maneuver.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.
2. In dentistry, a structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function; for example, bars in plastic denture base.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.
3. In conditioning, the totality of the process in which the conditioned stimulus is followed by presentation of the unconditioned stimulus, which itself elicits the response to be conditioned.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.

reinforcement

(rē′ĭn-fôrs′mənt)
n.
1. Something that reinforces.
2. Psychology
a. The occurrence or experimental introduction of an unconditioned stimulus along with a conditioned stimulus.
b. The strengthening of a conditioned response by such means.
c. An event, circumstance, or condition that increases the likelihood that a given response will recur in a situation like that in which the reinforcing condition originally occurred.

reinforcement

Psychology Any activity, either a reward-positive reinforcement, or punishment-negative reinforcement, intended to strengthen or extinguish a response or behavior, making its occurrence more or less probable, intense, frequent; reinforcement is a process central to operant conditioning. See Contingency reinforcement.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'mĕnt)
1. An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes the fist tightly or pulls against the flexed fingers or contracts some other set of muscles.
2. dentistry A structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function (e.g., bars in plastic denture base).
3. conditioning The totality of the process in which the conditioned stimulus is followed by presentation of the unconditioned stimulus that itself elicits the response to be conditioned.
See also: reinforcer

reinforcement

A term used in learning theory and in behaviour therapy that refers to the strengthening of a tendency to respond to particular stimuli in particular ways. In classical conditioning, the occurrence or deliberate introduction of an unconditioned stimulus along with a conditioned stimulus; in operant conditioning, a reinforcer is a stimulus, such as a reward, that strengthens a desired response.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'mĕnt)
In dentistry, structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function; e.g., bars in plastic denture base.
References in periodicals archive ?
Non-generalized and generalized conditioned reinforcers: establishment and validation.
As noted in the previous section, much of the animal research on incentive learning regarding drug reinforcement postulates that conditioned reinforcers that maintain drug-seeking behavior are established by Pavlovian processes (Arroyo, Markou, Robbins, & Everitt, 1998; Di Ciano, Robbins, & Everitt, 2008; Morrison, Thornton, & Ranaldi, 2011).
The acquisition of conditioned reinforcers by observation has been reported in non-humans (Dugatkin, 1996, 2000) and in humans as reported herein.
In all four areas, the identification of the most effective means to condition new reinforcers may be used to improve efforts to speed up the development of useful behavioral repertoires in children with or without specific learning deficits, whether it is using a token economy or to form socially conditioned reinforcers. Hence, several researchers have sought to identify reliable and effective procedures aimed at establishing formerly neutral stimuli as conditioned reinforcers (Dozier et al., 2012; Greer & Singer-Dudek, 2008; Holth et al., 2009; Isaksen & Holth, 2009; Jones & Carr, 2004; Lugo, Mathews, King, Lamphere, & Damme, 2017; Zrinzo & Greer, 2013).
On this topic there is an important variable which has received remarkable attention within the study of discriminations learning: the use of conditioned reinforcers (Williams, 1994, for a theoretical review).
Moreover, children that lack these conditioned reinforcers for observing responses are likely to find it difficult, if not impossible, to learn more complex skills such as language acquisition, generalized matching and becoming more aware of different stimuli in their environment.
Eisenberger has attributed this effect to the conditioned reinforcer value of effort, a reasonable explanation for the phenomenon; but, contrast may also be involved.
It has long been presumed that primary reinforcement delivered after a long delay does not directly affect behavior, but acts indirectly due to intervening conditioned reinforcers (e.g., Skinner, 1953, p.
When books and related stimuli select children's attention and looking at books becomes a preferred activity during periods of free play, the book stimuli are conditioned reinforcers for observing and selecting books.
Points were assumed to function as a generalized conditioned reinforcer and were not exchangeable for any backup reinforcers.
The student frequently manded to use the computer, which indicated the computer functioned as a conditioned reinforcer for the student prior to the onset of the study.
The theory states that the ability of a stimulus to act as a conditioned reinforcer can be determined by comparing the reduction in time to primary reinforcement correlated with the onset of that stimulus, relative to the average delay to primary reinforcement correlated with the prior stimulus situation (Fantino, 1969b, 1977; Squires & Fantino 1971).