entacapone

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entacapone

 [en-tak´ah-pōn]
an antidyskinetic agent used in conjunction with levodopa and carbidopa to enhance dopaminergic stimulation of the brain and the antiparkinsonian activity of levodopa in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, administered orally.

entacapone

Comtan, Comtess (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor

Therapeutic class: Antidyskinetic

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Inhibits COMT, the primary enzyme involved in metabolizing levodopa. This inhibition increases levodopa blood level and duration of action, easing symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Availability

Tablets: 200 mg

Indications and dosages

Adjunctive treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease in patients experiencing wearing off of carbidopa-levodopa effects

Adults: 200 mg P.O. with each carbidopa-levodopa dose, to a maximum of eight times daily (1,600 mg)

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• hepatic or renal dysfunction, hypertension, heart disease
• pregnant and breastfeeding patients.

Administration

• Give without regard to food.
• Administer at same time as carbidopa-levodopa. Make sure patient swallows tablet whole.

Don't withdraw drug abruptly.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, depression, drowsiness, disorientation, memory loss, agitation, delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, euphoria, dyskinesia, hyperkinesia, light-headedness, paresthesia, heaviness of limbs, numbness of fingers

CV: tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, hypertension

GI: nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, flatulence

GU: urine discoloration

Respiratory: upper respiratory tract infection, dyspnea, sinus congestion

Other: fever

Interactions

Drug-drug.Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cholestyramine, erythromycin, probenecid, rifampin: decreased entacapone excretion

Bitolterol, dobutamine, dopamine, epinephrine, isoetherine, isoproterenol, methyldopa, norepinephrine: increased heart rate, increased risk of arrhythmias, excessive blood pressure changes

MAO inhibitors: increased risk of toxicity

Drug-behaviors.Alcohol use: increased risk of adverse reactions

Patient monitoring

• Monitor vital signs, watching especially for orthostatic hypotension.
• Evaluate neurologic status closely. Check for hallucinations and new onset or exacerbation of dyskinesia.
• Assess respiratory status, particularly for dyspnea and signs and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection.
• Monitor nutritional and hydration status if patient experiences vomiting.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to swallow tablet whole and to take it at same time as carbidopa-levodopa.

Caution patient not to stop taking drug abruptly.
• Advise patient to move slowly when sitting up or standing, to avoid dizziness or light-headedness from sudden blood pressure decrease.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until drug no longer affects concentration and alertness.

Instruct patient (and caregiver) to institute safety measures at home to prevent injury related to disease or drug's adverse CNS effects.
• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and behaviors mentioned above.

entacapone

/en·tac·a·pone/ (en-tak´ah-pōn) an antidyskinetic used in conjunction with levodopa and carbidopa in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

entacapone

an antiparkinson agent.
indications It is used to treat parkinsonism in patients who are experiencing end-of-dose decreased effect.
contraindication Known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects Serious adverse effects include psychosis, hallucination, hypomania, severe depression, dizziness, gastritis, GI disorders, alopecia, dark urine, back pain, dyspnea, purpura, fatigue, asthenia, and bacterial infection. Common side effects include involuntary choreiform movements, hand tremors, fatigue, headache, anxiety, twitching, numbness, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, hyperkinesia, weakness, confusion, agitation, nightmares, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal distress, dry mouth, flatulence, bitter taste, diarrhea, constipation, dyspepsia, and orthostatic hypotension.

entacapone

A nitrocatechol-class COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) inhibitor used to improve motor performance in Parkinson patients receiving l-DOPA/carbidopa.

Adverse effects
Dyskinesia, which often resolves with ongoing therapy; diarrhoea, nausea and abdominal pain; asymptomatic red-brown urine.

entacapone

Comtan® Neurology A COMT inhibitor which may improve motor performance in Parkinson Pts receiving levodopa/carbidopa. See Parkinson's disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is available globally as Comtess and Comtan, and as one of the three active compounds in the novel levodopa treatment, Stalevo.
Entacapone was launched in 1998-1999 world-wide as Comtess and Comtan, and it soon became Orion's best-selling brand.
This was the playground of kings and queens, comtes and comtesses and all aspiring courtiers who quite often went broke trying to keep up with the royal excesses.