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An automatically controlled operation of an apparatus or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human elements of observation, effort, and decision making.

laboratory automation

The use of clinical laboratory instruments that assay large numbers of samples with minimal human intervention.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Thomas MeEwen, "Computer Ethics," National Institute of Justice Reports (January/February 1991): 8-10.
The Ten Commandments reside on the Computer Ethics Institute (11 Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 900, Washington DC 20036), World Wide Website at:
Maner, W., (1980), Starter Kit on Teaching Computer Ethics, Helvetia Press.
Given the significance of ICT in engineering education and practice, engineering students of all disciplines, and not just computer engineers, stand to benefit from exposure to ethical issues that are standard fare in computer ethics, in such areas as privacy, intellectual property in the digital age, and computer-systems reliability.
Computer ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
This response has been criticised for not bringing us any closer to the question of how we know what a virtuous agent should do in the computer ethics case: is it virtuous to disclose the peeking to the users?
of Notre Dame) presents an introduction to the field of computer ethics. He first deals with the philosophy of ethics and explores efforts to construct a unifying theory of computer ethics.
The ninth edition features a new chapter on computer ethics and the Internet.
Nancy Willard is director of the Responsible Netizen Institute ( and is author of Computer Ethics, Etiquette, and Safety for the 21st Century Student.
Computer Ethics. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985.
The topic of computer ethics was introduced as a way to situate instruction in Usenet protocol.
The volume opens with treatment of security management concepts and principles; change control management; data classification; risk management; policies, standards, procedures, and guideline; security awareness training; security management planning; and Internet and computer ethics. It then discusses access control in sections covering access control techniques, access control administration, identification and authentication techniques, access control methodologies and implementation, methods of attack, and monitoring and penetration testing.

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