complement cascade


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Related to complement cascade: Membrane attack complex

complement cascade

Immunology A complex, multimolecular biologic system with ± 25 different proteins that self-assemble on cell surfaces, functioning in concert with the specific immune systems to mediate host reactions and anti-microbial defense; the coup de grâce for the hapless target cell is the polymerization of C9 on its surface, which forms a transmembrane 'doughnut' that facilitates the egress of ions, cell lysis and death. See Complement. Cf Alternate pathway, Classic pathway, Common pathway.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tenner, "The complement cascade: Yin-Yang in neuroinflammation --neuro-protection and -degeneration," Journal of Neurochemistry, vol.
It regulates not only the Complement cascade (inhibitor of C1r, C1s, and MASPs) but is also an important regulator of the coagulation cascade activation and inhibits several fibrinolytic proteins (kallikrein, FXIIa, FXIa, and plasmin) [52].
Innate immunity consists of a highly regulated immune surveillance system comprising several humoral factors, including soluble PRRs, such as collectins, ficolins, and pentraxins [32, 33], and the complement cascade [34].
Furthermore, the complement cascade plays an important role in many acute inflammatory processes and host defences.
The findings, Lambris said, provide a molecular scaffold for designing novel drug therapeutics."Now we will be able to design specific complement inhibitors to target this complex and in that way inhibit activation of the complement cascade, because now we know which parts of the proteins are essential for activity," Lambris said.The complement system is a form of "innate," or generic immunity, unlike "adaptive" immune responses, in which cellular mediators such as B and T cells learn to target specific antigens through recognition by either antibodies or cell receptors.
* Heightened classical complement cascade: The brain normally streamlines itself by targeting and eliminating synapses that are no longer needed through an immune system process known as the classical complement cascade.
(11) Genetic defects in the complement cascade associated with SLE result in inadequate clearance of immune complexes, as well as apoptotic blebs containing autoantigens.
The ultimate fate of this complement cascade is often pathogen destruction by direct cell rupture ("lysis") or, more often, through the induction of cytokine release and the recruitment of other cells that destroy the pathogen through phagocytosis (Abbas, 2005).
C1-INH functions in the body to inactivate or prevent the C1 complement (esterase) from autoactivating the complement cascade. Through the action of the C1 complement (esterase), the complement cascade, once activated, initiates events that generate complement fragments known as membrane attack complexes.
The complement cascade has been implicated in the destruction of red blood cells, or hemolysis, characteristic of PNH, as PNH blood cells are deficient in natural inhibitors of the complement cascade.
One hundred and seventy-eight ethanolic plant extracts from the pharmacopoeia of the Tacana, an ethnic group from Bolivia, were screened for immunomodulatory activity using complement cascade inhibition and ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition assays.
CHICAGO -- Selective inhibition of the complement cascade for 24 hours markedly reduced mortality after acute MI in a large phase II clinical trial.

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