Rhamnus cathartica

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Rhamnus cathartica,

n See buckthorn.
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pseudolimnaeus) differed in their consumption of leaves of nonnative common buckthorn and native green ash before leaves were conditioned in the stream, (2) whether the consumption of each leaf species changed over time as the leaves were conditioned within the stream, and (3) how the relative consumption of conditioned leaves varied between the native and nonnative plant species.
Common buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica, which bears distasteful and toxic fruit, differs in the presence of thorns and in that its fruits each contain three to four seeds.
For the exposed front row, Howard used Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens) and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica); for the middle row, he chose Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila); and for the tall back row, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana).
Five of the species recorded at the sites, common buckthorn, tree-of-heaven, white mulberry, honeysuckle and elm were non-native.