20% (3/15) brushes showing pathogenic bacteria S.aureus, E.coli and P.aeruginosa in commensal flora
. 13.33 % (2/15) brushes showed no growth.
Additionally, the use of immunomodulators and immunosuppressive drugs may alter the composition of commensal flora
, selecting pathogens able to chronically stimulate the immune system.
Bacteria residing in the intestine consist of a real and essential organ known as commensal flora
was grown on aerobic culture of sputum.
Contamination of the sample from eyelids will lead to overgrowth of commensal flora
of eyelids (most commonly staphylococci and streptococci).
Mucosal barrier function and the commensal flora
Members of serotypes 6, 19 and 23, are frequently isolated from the commensal flora
and systemic infections in India and other parts of the world (3,4).
Antimicrobial drug-resistance rates of Escherichia coli as part of commensal flora
in children, Bolivia and Peru, 2002 and 2005 * Drug ([dagger]) 2002 2005 p value ([double dagger]) AMP 95 96 <0.05 CRO 0.1 1.7 <0.001 TET 93 93 NS SXT 94 94 NS CHL 70 69 NS STR 82 92 <0.001 KAN 28 29 <0.05 GEN 21 27 <0.001 AMK 0.4 0.1 NA NAL 35 57 <0.001 CIP 18 33 <0.001 * Expanded Table available online at www.cdc.gov/EID/content/14/2/338-T.htm.
The other method is for the physician to use a collection technique (e.g., bronchoscopy) that avoids the commensal flora
found in the upper resp iratory tract.
Permanently exposed to enteric microbes, the mucosa has to provide an efficient protection against pathogenic microbes, and, on the other side, has to maintain tolerance towards commensal flora
. The innate immune system has evolved to provide mutual profit to both the host and microbiota.
may play key role in spreading antibiotic resistance.
For example, the collection using a swab is a superficial process that may lead to the cultivation of large numbers of commensal flora
. Ear specimens are commonly, but inappropriately, received on swabs.