On the other hand, recent studies also highlighted the importance of the signals derived from commensal bacteria
which can calibrate the activation threshold of innate immunity.
The reduced concentration of these commensal bacteria
has been therefore associated with a higher frequency of relapse of CDI [23, 33, 34].
In addition, commensal bacteria
provide other supplementary mechanisms through which they prevent gut colonization by pathogens, as exemplified by the action of Bacteroides fragilis through its unique surface polysaccharide (PSA) .
Nudler's lab plans to look more closely at other potential mechanisms by which commensal bacteria
can promote health and longevity, using the powerful and easily manipulated C.
"In addition, previous studies in animal models have shown that commensal bacteria
can influence local immune cells in the intestine.
Moreover, T cells of patients with IBD have been found to be hyperactive against bacterial antigens (53) and increased intestinal mucosal secretion of IgG antibodies against commensal bacteria
and increased attachment of bacteria to epithelial cell surfaces, are pointers to bacterial involvement in the pathogenesis of IBD (53,54).
"In healthy adults, the amount of diversity seen in skin commensal bacteria
is staggering," say James A.
Due to their ability to modulate epithelial cell functions as well as respond against commensal bacteria
and pathogens, it is tempting to speculate that ILCs3 can participate in the complex regulation of IBD-related mucosal response, given that there is evidence that IL-22 is protective in murine models of IBD [27, 50].
Fan et al., "Metabolites produced by commensal bacteria
promote peripheral regulatory T-cell generation," Nature, vol.
Mice who received commensal bacteria
from donors that made lymphotoxin gained weight rapidly.
epidermidis or other commensal bacteria
, nor did it affect human keratinocytes or sebocytes.