Collagen Cross-Linked N-Telopeptide
Collagen Cross-Linked N-Telopeptide
SpecimenUrine (2 mL) from a random specimen collected in a clean plastic container.
|Adult male 18–29 yr||Less than 100 mmol bone collagen equivalents (BCE)/mmol creatinine|
|Adult male 30–59 yr||Less than 65 mmol BCE/mmol creatinine|
|Adult female (premenopausal)||Less than 65 mmol BCE/mmol creatinine|
|I||55–508 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)||6–662 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)|
|II||21–423 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)||193–514 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)|
|III||27–462 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)||13–632 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)|
|IV||Less than 609 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)||Less than 389 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)|
|V||Less than 240 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)||Less than 132 (mmol BCE/mmol creatinine)|
A noninvasive test to detect the presence of collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) is used to follow the progress of patients who have begun treatment for osteoporosis. NTx is formed when collagenase acts on bone. Small NTx fragments are excreted in the urine after bone resorption. A desirable response, 2 to 3 mo after therapy is initiated, is a 30% reduction in NTx and a reduction of 50% below baseline by 12 mo.
This procedure is contraindicated for
- Assist in the evaluation of osteoporosis
- Assist in the management and treatment of osteoporosis
- Monitor effects of estrogen replacement therapy
Conditions that reflect increased bone resorption are associated with increased levels of N-telopeptide in the urine
- Alcoholism (related to inadequate nutrition)
- Chronic immobilization
- Chronic treatment with anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists, heparin, or thyroid hormone
- Conditions that include hypercortisolism, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and hypogonadism
- Gastrointestinal disease (related to inadequate dietary intake or absorption of minerals required for bone formation and maintenance)
- Growth disorders (acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, osteogenesis imperfecta)
- Hyperparathyroidism (related to imbalance in calcium and phosphorus that affects the rate of bone resorption)
- Multiple myeloma and metastatic tumors
- Osteomalacia (related to defective bone mineralization)
- Paget’s disease
- Postmenopausal women (related to estrogen deficiency)
- Recent fracture
- Renal insufficiency (related to excessive loss through renal dysfunction)
- Rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases (related to inadequate diet due to loss of appetite)
- Effective therapy for osteoporosis
- NTx levels are affected by urinary excretion, and values may be influenced by the presence of renal impairment or disease.
Nursing Implications and Procedure
Potential nursing problems
|Problem||Signs & Symptoms||Interventions|
|Health maintenance (Related to failure to regulate diet; lack of exercise; alcohol use; smoking)||Inability or failure to recognize or process information toward improving health and preventing illness with associated mental and physical effects||Encourage regular participation in weight-bearing exercise; assess diet, smoking, and alcohol use; teach the importance of adequate calcium intake with diet and supplements; refer to smoking cessation and alcohol treatment programs; collaborate with physician for bone density evaluation|
|Socialization (Related to altered body image and associated change in physical appearance)||Expresses concern about changes in appearance related to kyphosis or lordosis; isolates self at home and refuses to participate in usual social or familial activities; expresses discomfort with social situations; fear of falling||Encourage continuation of activates inclusive of those with whom there is an established friend or family relationship; encourage participation in a community support group; encourage realistic view of physical appearance; acknowledge patient’s perception of changed image and the impact on his or her life|
|Self-care (Related to loss of bone mass and physical deformity; pain; and limited range of motion)||Difficulty fastening clothing; difficulty performing personal hygiene; inability to maintain appropriate appearance; difficulty with independent mobility||Reinforce self-care techniques as taught by occupational therapy; ensure the patient has adequate time to perform self-care; encourage use of assistive devices to maintain independence; ask if there is any interference with lifestyle activities|
|Fall risk (Related to altered mobility associated with loss of bone mass)||Postural instability; jerky movement; uncoordinated movement; slow, unsteady movement||Teach about fall precautions; assess home environment for fall risk; evaluate medications for contributory cause related to recent falls; encourage physical therapy to facilitate moderate exercise; teach that low, comfortable walking shoes can promote safe ambulation and decrease fall risk|
- Positively identify the patient using at least two unique identifiers before providing care, treatment, or services.
- Patient Teaching: Inform the patient this test can assist in diagnosing osteoporosis and evaluating the effectiveness of therapy.
- Obtain a history of the patient’s complaints, including a list of known allergens.
- Obtain a history of the patient’s musculoskeletal system and results of previously performed laboratory tests and diagnostic and surgical procedures.
- Obtain a list of the patient’s current medications, including herbs, nutritional supplements, and nutraceuticals (see Effects of Natural Products on Laboratory Values online at DavisPlus).
- Review the procedure with the patient. Inform the patient that specimen collection takes approximately 5 to 10 min. Address concerns about pain and explain that there should be no discomfort during the procedure.
- Sensitivity to social and cultural issues, as well as concern for modesty, is important in providing psychological support before, during, and after the procedure.
- Note that there are no food, fluid, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction.
- Potential complications: N/A
- Instruct the patient to cooperate fully and to follow directions.
- Observe standard precautions, and follow the general guidelines in Patient Preparation and Specimen Collection. Positively identify the patient, and label the appropriate specimen container with the corresponding patient demographics, initials of the person collecting the specimen, date, and time of collection.
- Instruct the patient to collect a second-void morning specimen as follows: (1) void and then drink a glass of water; (2) wait 30 min, and then try to void again.
- Promptly transport the specimen to the laboratory for processing and analysis.
- Inform the patient that a report of the results will be made available to the requesting health-care provider (HCP), who will discuss the results with the patient.
- Nutritional Considerations: Increased NTx levels may be associated with osteoporosis. Nutritional therapy may be indicated for patients identified as being at high risk for developing osteoporosis. Educate the patient about the National Osteoporosis Foundation’s guidelines regarding a regular regimen of weight-bearing exercises, limited alcohol intake, avoidance of tobacco products, and adequate dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Dietary calcium can be obtained in animal or plant sources. Milk and milk products, sardines, clams, oysters, salmon, rhubarb, spinach, beet greens, broccoli, kale, tofu, legumes, and fortified orange juice are high in calcium. Milk and milk products also contain vitamin D and lactose to assist in absorption. Cooked vegetables yield more absorbable calcium than raw vegetables. Patients should also be informed of the substances that can inhibit calcium absorption by irreversibly binding to some of the calcium and making it unavailable for absorption, such as oxalates, which naturally occur in some vegetables (e.g., beet greens, collards, leeks, okra, parsley, quinoa, spinach, Swiss chard) and are found in tea; phytic acid, found in some cereals (e.g., wheat bran, wheat germ); phosphoric acid, found in dark cola; and excessive intake of insoluble dietary fiber (in excessive amounts). Excessive protein intake also can affect calcium absorption negatively, especially if it is combined with foods high in phosphorus. Vitamin D is synthesized by the skin and is available in fortified dairy foods and cod liver oil.
- Recognize anxiety related to test results, and be supportive of impaired activity related to lack of muscular control, perceived loss of independence, and fear of shortened life expectancy.
- Depending on the results of this procedure, additional testing may be performed to evaluate or monitor progression of the disease process and determine the need for a change in therapy. Evaluate test results in relation to the patient’s symptoms and other tests performed.
- Instruct the patient to resume usual diet, fluids, medications, and activity, as directed by the HCP.
- Discuss the implications of abnormal test results on the patient’s lifestyle.
- Provide teaching and information regarding the clinical implications of the test results, as appropriate.
- Educate the patient regarding access to counseling services. Provide contact information, if desired, for the American College of Rheumatology (www.rheumatology.org), the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (www.iom.edu), or the National Osteoporosis Foundation (www.nof.org).
- Reinforce information given by the patient’s HCP regarding further testing, treatment, or referral to another HCP.
- Answer any questions or address any concerns voiced by the patient or family.
- Discuss with the patient the effect of alcohol consumption on nutritional status and calcium intake.
Expected Patient Outcomes
- Identifies the importance of adhering to the recommended therapeutic regime to maintain health
- Describes the importance of early intervention on preserving bone density and reducing future risk of falls and fractures
- Proficiently demonstrates the proper use of assistive devices to support mobility and increase activity
- Independently demonstrates weight-bearing exercises designed to promote bone growth
- Discusses perceived change in physical appearance with a positive attitude
- Selects positive changes in lifestyle that can preserve bone health
- Related tests include ALP, BMD, calcitonin, calcium, creatinine, creatinine clearance, osteocalcin, PTH, phosphorus, radiography bone, and vitamin D.
- Refer to the Musculoskeletal System table at the end of the book for related tests by body system.