Colitis


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colitis

 [ko-li´tis]
inflammation of the colon. There are many types of colitis, each with different etiologies; the differential diagnosis involves the clinical history, stool examinations, sigmoidoscopy, and radiologic studies such as a lower gastrointestinal series. One of the most common types is idiopathic ulcerative colitis, which is characterized by extensive ulcerations along the mucosa and submucosa of the bowel. Other types often can be traced to such etiologic factors as bacteria and viruses, drugs such as antibiotics, and radiation from x-rays or radioactive materials. Strong emotions can cause hypermotility of the gut and thereby produce symptoms typical of colitis. True colitis should be distinguished from irritable bowel syndrome (formerly referred to by other names such as mucous colitis, irritable colon, and spastic colon); in the latter condition there is no actual inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Almost all forms of colitis cause lower abdominal pain, bleeding from the bowel, and diarrhea. The patient may have as many as 20 bowel movements a day, resulting in serious depletion of body fluids and electrolytes. Treatment is aimed at eliminating or mitigating the underlying cause of the inflammatory process, resting and soothing the inflamed bowel, and restoring the nutritional status and fluid and electrolyte balance to normal.
antibiotic-associated colitis colitis associated with antimicrobial therapy, most commonly with lincomycin or clindamycin, but also with other broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as ampicillin and tetracycline. It can range from mild nonspecific colitis and diarrhea to severe fulminant pseudomembranous colitis with profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. The inflammation may be caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile, a microorganism that is normally present in the resident bowel flora of infants, but is rarely found in adults. Presumably, the disruption of the normal flora allows the growth of C. difficile.
collagenous colitis a type of colitis of unknown etiology characterized by deposits of collagenous material beneath the epithelium of the colon, with crampy abdominal pain and watery diarrhea.
Crohn's colitis Crohn's disease.
diversion colitis inflammation in a nonfunctioning colonic pouch created by corrective surgery; it resolves following restoration of intestinal continuity.
ischemic colitis acute vascular insufficiency of the colon, usually involving the portion supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery; symptoms include pain at the left iliac fossa, bloody diarrhea, low-grade fever, abdominal distention, and abdominal tenderness. The classic radiologic sign is thumbprinting, due to localized elevation of the mucosa by submucosal hemorrhage or edema. Ulceration may follow.
pseudomembranous colitis a severe acute inflammation of the bowel mucosa, with the formation of pseudomembranous plaques; it is usually associated with antimicrobial therapy (antibiotic-associated colitis). The common symptoms are watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. The pathologic lesions are yellow-green pseudomembranous plaques of mucinous inflammatory exudate distributed in patches over the colonic mucosa and sometimes also in the small intestine. Called also pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
radiation colitis colitis resulting from radiation therapy to the abdominal region; it is manifested clinically by tenesmus, pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and telangiectases. Malabsorption, ulceration, and partial or complete obstruction may follow.
ulcerative colitis see ulcerative colitis.

co·li·tis

(kō-lī'tis),
Inflammation of the colon.
[G. kōlon, colon, + -itis, inflammation]

colitis

(kə-lī′tĭs)
n.
Inflammation of the colon. Also called colonitis.

colitis

GI disease Inflammation of the large intestine, which is divided into structural and/or functional subtypes—ulcerative, Crohn's, infectious, pseudomembranous, spastic Clinical Rectal bleeding, abdominal colic, diarrhea Diagnosis Visualization by colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy; barium enema, virtual colonoscopy Management Differs by type, and includes medical or surgical management. See Chemical colitis, Crohn's colitis, Collagenous colitis, Diversion colitis, Enterocolitis, Indeterminant colitis, Irritable bowel syndrome, Ischemic colitis, Neutropenic colitis with aplastic anemia, Pseudomembranous colitis, Ulcerative colitis.

co·li·tis

(kō-lī'tis)
Inflammation of the colon.
[G. kōlon, colon, + -itis, inflammation]

colitis

Inflammation of the COLON. See ULCERATIVE COLITIS.

Colitis

Inflammation of the colon or large bowel which has several causes. The lining of the colon becomes swollen, and ulcers often develop. The ability of the colon to absorb fluids is also affected, and diarrhea often results.

co·li·tis

(kō-lī'tis)
Inflammation of the colon.
[G. kōlon, colon, + -itis, inflammation]

Patient discussion about Colitis

Q. What are the symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis? I am 40 years old and suffer from a lot of stomach aches and diarrhea. Do I have Ulcerative Colitis? What are its symptoms?

A. Here's a pretty good article that covers symptoms of UC:

http://www.wearecrohns.org/ucers/articles/319

Q. What is the connection between bowel disease and arthritis? My son suffers from ulcerative colitis, and the doctor said that his recent joint pain can be as a result of the colitis. Why is that?

A. Although ulcerative colitis happens mainly in the colon, it is a systemic disease, and patients may present with symptoms and complications outside the colon. These include musculoskeletal complications such as arthritis (for instance- ankylosing spondylitis). The exact mechanism of this injury is unknown.

More discussions about Colitis
References in periodicals archive ?
Ulcerative colitis is one of the most common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)6, affecting over 220,000 people in Japan.
If you have mild ulcerative colitis, you may need minimal or no treatment and remain well for prolonged periods of time.
As shown in Figure 1a, mice in the control group maintained a stable weight during the experimental process, whereas mice in the colitis group significantly suffered weight loss (p<0.01).
Lymphocytic (microscopic) colitis. Clinicopathologic study of 18 patients and comparison to collagenous colitis.
"Crohn's and Colitis are a growing but hidden health crisis in UK workplaces -- and people need better support and understanding to manage these conditions.
If ulcerative colitis is suspected, the next step will be a flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, which allows the doctor to visualize the interior of the large intestine and take tissue samples for analysis.
However, the specific effects of formononetin on acute colitis have not been well defined and documented.
We formerly showed that IL-33 alleviated DSS-induced chronic colitis by suppressing Th17 cell response in colon lamina propria [28].
Multiple biopsy samples were taken from the colon--they revealed severe chronic colitis with focal areas of ulceration, focal cryptitis, and architectural distortion.
Ulcerative colitis is a recurrent chronic immune disease.