Issues with the current mainstream genotyping methods include their limited accuracy in subtyping calls and their inability to detect coinfection
, which is estimated to be present in 2% to 7% of patients.
Battegay et al., "Incidence and risk factors for chronic elevation of alanine aminotransferase levels in HIV-infected persons without hepatitis B or C virus coinfection
," Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.
The remaining 6 coinfections
were detected once and were due to unique combination of respiratory viruses (Table 3).
A profound impact in both hepatitis and HIV diseases' progression has been attributed to the coinfections
. Rapid deterioration to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with an increased mortality is a major consequence of HIV infection in chronic hepatitis B .
A cross-sectional study was carried out at Metema hospital to determine VL-malaria coinfection
among all clinically suspected VL patients.
"Research on coinfections
acquired from Ixodes scapularis has just begun."
HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections
: advances and challenges.
To meet the objectives of this review, Internet search engines including PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google[R], Google Scholar[R] and Cochrane were queried with the key words as medical subject headings to identify peer-reviewed scientific articles on newly emerging tick-transmitted infectious diseases and tick-transmitted coinfections
in the U.S.
Perhaps nothing more aptly represents the dichotomy between conventional "evidence-based medicine" and naturopathic medicine than the dilemma of diagnosing Lyme disease and its coinfections
. Conventional medicine remains entrenched in a simple diagnostic entity, an acute infection brought about by a tick bite, leading to infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, diagnosed with a simple ELISA assay, and treated with an antibiotic for a period of 2 weeks.
Of the 1,027 unique individuals represented in the dataset, 934 appeared once only, while 93 (9%) had repeat entries (either single infections or coinfections
with gonorrhea and chlamydia).
with scrub typhus, dengue and malaria have been reported, these are still not very common (5-6).
HTLV-I is one of the viruses with an incubation period of 10 to 40 years and in most of the patients, it has no manifestation during their lifetime, thus, patients in endemic areas with high risk behaviors are prone to coinfections
with FIIV-I (10).