The most recent studies with soybean germoplasm related to genetic diversity use molecular markers (BONATO et al., 2006; VIEIRA et al., 2009; Priolli et al., 2010) and the Malecot's coefficient of relatedness
(MIRANDA, 2005; MIRANDA et al., 2007).
Using 16 microsatellite loci, we estimated the degree of inbreeding of each pair's progeny in three ways: (1) identity (I) or the expected homozygosity of the progeny based on their parents' genotypes estimated using the IDENTIX program, (2) a moment-based estimator of the pair-wise coefficient of relatedness
(W) of each parental pair estimated using the MER program of Wang, and (3) a modified estimator of the pair-wise coefficient of relatedness
(K) designed specifically to accommodate null alleles, which were common in the Dabob Bay population and estimated using the ML-RELATE by Kalinowski.
where r is the kin selection coefficient of relatedness
between actor and recipient, B is the reproductive benefit provided to the recipient by the actor's behavior, and C is the reproductive cost to the actor for providing benefits to the recipient.
In theory, heritabilities, being the proportion of total variance attributable to genetic causes, are constrained to fall between zero and one, but statistical estimates can fall outside of this interval caused by sampling errors and the fact that heritability is calculated by multiplying the observed among-family variance component by the reciprocal of the coefficient of relatedness
to estimate the numerator of the proportion (Falconer & Mackay 1996), magnifying estimation errors.
Estimators for this coefficient of relatedness
for individuals are given in Ritland (1996).
In line with our expectations, the two-gene coefficient of relatedness
was much higher in the meadow habitat than the stream habitat (0.125 vs.
the accumulated fitness effects of its behavior on the fitness of other individuals weighted by the coefficient of relatedness
, [r.sub.xy] (Ross and Carpenter 1991).
longus, is a rare phenomenon in haplodiploid animals (Hamilton 1972), and can be explained here by the high coefficient of relatedness
expected between males and their offspring, owing to the inbreeding that occurs in this species (Saito 1987).
This is because monoandry can be inferred in monogynous species when the coefficient of relatedness
among workers is 0.75, whereas allozyme data do not allow estimates of the number of matings in polygynous species in the absence of data on how many queens reproduce and how they divide up reproduction.
In such cases, band-sharing data could be used to distinguish distinct classes of relationship; for example, among Serengeti lions, DNA fingerprinting successfully distinguished between kin with a coefficient of relatedness
r |is greater than or is equal to~ 0.125, those with r = 0.02-0.06, and nonrelatives (Packer et al.