Figure 3(a) shows the UV-Vis spectra of the cochineal extract at pH 12.0 and after the biosynthesis of AgNPs on the eighth day.
The AgNP mixture with 0.4 ml of the cochineal extract presented a single surface plasmon absorption band at 428.5 nm (Figure 3(c) and Table 1); however, the AgNP mixture with 0.1 ml of the cochineal extract presented two plasmon bands at 443 nm with a weak shoulder peak at 379 nm (Figure 3(b) and Table 1), possibly suggesting nonspherical (irregularly shaped) particles [22, 23].
Dactylopius coccus, is commonly sun-dried, crushed and dipped in an alcohol solution to create carminic acid--the pigment which eventually becomes the colorant carmine or cochineal extract for use in food and beverages.
Carmine or cochineal extract was developed as a natural alternative to synthetic dyes such as Red No.
(10) A separate amendment in 1960 mandated premarket approval for all color additives, both synthetic colors (e.g., FD&C Blue 2) and "natural" colors derived from animal, vegetable, and mineral sources (e.g., cochineal extract).
(7) It was a 2001 petition submitted by the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) over undeclared allergens in foods (28) that in 2011 resulted in the new requirement that cochineal extract be declared on labels rather than included under vague labeling such as "color added" or "artificial color." (29) It was at that point that consumers became aware of the nonvegan cochineal extract in Starbucks' strawberry Frappuccino.
According to the FDA, cochineal extract
and carmine, the lake form of the additive, have been used since the late 1800s in such foods as pork sausages, ice cream, strawberry-flavored milk, imitation crab and lobster, maraschino cherries, Port wine cheeses, lumpfish eggs and colored spirits like Campari[R].
2[*] Colors Exempt from Certification Annatto extract B-Apo-8'-carotenal[*] Beta-carotene Beet powder Canthaxanthin Caramel color Carrot oil Cochineal extract
(carmine) Cottonseed flour, toasted partially defatted, cooked Ferrous gluconate[*] Fruit juice Grape color extract[*] Grope skin extract[*] (enocianina) Paprika Paprika oleoresin Riboflavin Saffron Titanium dioxide[*] Turmeric Turmeric oleoresin Vegetable juice [*]Then food cob additives are restricted to specified uses.
"The Bixa Orellana tree, whence annatto is derived, was named after the conquistador Francisco de Orellana who first explored the Amazon River in 1541, whilst cochineal extract
was given as a tribute to Montezuma the Aztec ruler!"
The red food coloring called carmine or cochineal extract