spp (C immitis and C posadasii) are large, dimorphic fungi endemic in the southwestern United States and Central and South America, capable of causing acute and chronic respiratory infections.
mycelia grow after rainstorms and then forms spores during long dry periods (Lacy & Swatek, 1974).
DNA and viable propagules were isolated from soil at a location of suspected exposure for 1 of these cases (12,13).
Reasons for the current increase in reported coccidioidomycosis are unknown but might include weather and environmental factors, including precipitation, which can facilitate growth of Coccidioides
, followed by high temperatures and drought, which can facilitate distribution (5).
Cases of miliary Nocardia, Mycoplasma, Blastomyces [7, 8], Coccidioides
, Cryptococcus , and Pneumocystis jirovecii  have been reported.
Coccidioidal meningitis was confirmed with CSF Coccidioides
complement fixing antibody titer of 1:2048.
Anecdotally, terbinafine has been proposed to have synergistic effects when added to fluconazole in the treatment of Coccidioides
There are several reports of mass formation in the nasal cavity of horses related to fungal infections as Conidiobolus and Coccidioides
immitis (CASWELL & WILLIAMS, 2016), Aspergillus (GUIDA et al., 2005), Rhinosporidium seeberi (previously classified as a fungus) (LEEMING et al., 2007), in addition to formation of nasal polyps, ethmoid hematomas, and tumors (CASWELL & WILLIAMS, 2016).
Additional negative tests included serum galactomannan and [beta]-d-glucan, serology for Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Blastomyces and Coccidioides
, CMV PCR, EBV PCR as well as fungal, mycobacterial and bacterial blood cultures.
MVista Antigen Detection: Histoplasma, Coccidioides
, and Blastomyces Quantitative EIA Other Antigen Detection: Aspergillus Galactomannan, B-D Glucan Antibody Detection: MVista Histoplasma IgG IgM, MVista Coccidioides
IgG IgM, Blastomyces, and Aspergillus
'Valley fever is not contagious, it is caused by the coccidioides
fungus, which lives in the soil,' says Daniel Tong, atmospheric scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and lead author of the study.
Isolation and characterization of the urease gene (URE) from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides