coagulation

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Related to Coagulation system: Coagulation factors, Coagulation cascade

coagulation

 [ko-ag″u-la´shun]
1. in surgery, the disruption of tissue by physical means to form an amorphous residuum, as in electrocoagulation or hotocoagulation.
2. in colloid chemistry, solidification of a sol into a gelatinous mass.
blood coagulation clotting.
diffuse intravascular coagulation (disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)) see disseminated intravascular coagulation.
coagulation factors factors essential to normal blood clotting, whose absence, diminution, or excess may lead to abnormality of the clotting. Twelve factors, commonly designated by Roman numerals, have been described (I–V and VII–XIII; VI is no longer considered to have a clotting function). (See table 6.)

Factor I is a high-molecular-weight plasma protein that is converted to fibrin through the action of thrombin; deficiency conditions are called afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia. Called also fibrinogen. Factor II is a glycoprotein present in the plasma that is converted into thrombin in the common pathway of coagulation; deficiency is called hypoprothrombinemia. Called also prothrombin. Factor III is involved in the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, activating factor X; called also tissue thromboplastin or factor.

Factor IV is calcium, required in many stages of blood clotting. Factor V is a heat- and storage-labile material, present in plasma and not in serum and is involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation, causing the cleavage of prothrombin to the active thrombin. Deficiency causes parahemophilia. Called also accelerator globulin or factor and proaccelerin. Factor VI is no longer considered in the scheme of hemostasis, and hence is assigned neither a name nor a function.

Factor VII is a heat- and storage-stable material, present in serum and in plasma and participating in the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, acting with factor III to activate factor X. Deficiency, either hereditary or acquired (vitamin k deficiency), leads to hemorrhagic tendency. Called also proconvertin and serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (SPCA). Factor VIII is a relatively storage-labile material that participates in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, acting as a cofactor in the activation of factor X. Deficiency, an X-linked recessive trait, results in hemophilia a (classical hemophilia). Called also antihemophilic factor (AHF) and antihemophilic globulin (AHG). Factor IX is a relatively storage-stable substance involved in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, acting to activate factor X. Deficiency of this factor results in a hemorrhagic syndrome called hemophilia b (or Christmas disease), which is similar to classical hemophilia A. It is treated with purified preparations of the factor, derived from human plasma or recombinant, or with factor IX complex. Called also plasma thromboplastin component (PTC) and antihemophilic factor B.

Factor X is a heat-labile material with some storage stability, which is involved in both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation, uniting them to begin the common pathway. Once activated, it complexes with calcium, phospholipid, and activated factor V to form prothrombinase, which cleaves and activates prothrombin to thrombin. Called also Stuart or Stuart-Prower factor. Factor XI is a stable factor involved in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, activating factor IX. Deficiency results in hemophilia c. Called also plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA) and antihemophilic factor C. Factor XII is a stable factor activated by contact with glass or other foreign substances, which initiates coagulation through the intrinsic pathway by activating factor XI; called also Hageman factor. Factor XIII is a factor that polymerizes fibrin monomers, enabling fibrin to form a firm blood clot. Deficiency causes a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis. Called also fibrin-stabilizing factor.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

co·ag·u·la·tion

(kō'ag-yū-lā'shŭn),
1. Clotting; the process of changing from a liquid to a solid, said especially of blood (that is, blood coagulation). In vertebrates, blood coagulation is a result of cascade regulation from fibrin.
2. A clot or coagulum.
3. Transformation of a sol into a gel or semisolid mass, for example, the coagulation of the white of an egg by means of boiling. In any colloidal suspension, the disperse phase is greatly reduced via coagulation, thereby leading to a complete or partial separation of the coagulant; usually an irreversible phenomenon unless the basic nature of the substance is chemically altered.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

coagulation

Hematology Clot formation Surgery The physical disruption of tissue to form an amorphous residuum, as in electrocoagulation and photocoagulation. See Coagulopathy, Interstitial laser coagulation.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

co·ag·u·la·tion

(kō-ag'yū-lā'shŭn)
1. Clotting; the process by which a liquid, especially blood, changes from a liquid to a solid.
2. A clot or coagulum.
3. Transformation of a solution into a gel or semisolid mass.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

coagulation

the separation or precipitation of suspended particles from a dispersed state.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Coagulation

The entire process of blood clotting.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

co·ag·u·la·tion

(kō-ag'yū-lā'shŭn)
1. Clotting; the process of changing from a liquid to a solid, said especially of blood (i.e., blood coagulation).
2. A clot or coagulum.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
I stable groups of response the influence of season is appeared only by the changes of quantitative parameters of response and does not deal with the qualitative ones, at the same time the most expressed changes in the coagulation system in response to the load appears in spring.
D-dimers are not normally present in human blood plasma, except when the coagulation system has been activated, for instance, because of the presence of thrombosis or disseminated intravascular coagulation.
The Numeris(R) Coagulation System with VisiTrax(R) is also indicated for endoscopic coagulation of cardiac tissue in the United States.
On the other hand, the interactions among the mediators in the coagulation system over the first month of life need to be determined, in order to clarify the detailed mechanisms under the tendency of thrombosis.
There was studied change of the general blood coagulation by parameters of the time of spontaneous coagulation of the whole blood in order to characterize hemostatic effect of stiflos on the blood coagulation system. Initial time of the whole blood coagulation was 342 [+ or -] 25 sec., while in alimentary anemia it was made longer by 40% (P<0.05).
Thrombin can activate mast cells, so the modulation of the coagulation system with anticoagulants may prove useful in therapy for urticaria."
Among their topics are immune surveillance in cancer, Castelan's disease, naso-pharyngeal cancer diagnosis and management, viral hepatitis and hepato-carcinogenesis, simian virus 40 and human malignancy, and abnormalities of the coagulation system associated with HIV infection.
Data thus far are conflicting with regard to whether hypobaric hypoxia in the airplane cabin leads to activation of the coagulation system, Dr.
control system that integrates with various Olympus medical components including camera, light source, electrocautery, insufflator, SonoSurg[TM] ultrasonic cutting and coagulation system, DVR, and other environmental devices such as printers and VCRs," explains Sheri Sublett, Project Manager/ Integration at Olympus.
The new plant consisted of a pipeline and intake structure 500 m from the shoreline, a coarse screen, alum coagulation system followed by four drifting sand filters and chlorination.
However, if raw water quality changes quickly, especially if the incoming contaminant demands more charge neutralization or if a mass of fine particulates arrives, the coagulation system may not be able to respond since it carries the burden of coagulating lime.