Coagulation cascade


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Related to Coagulation cascade: Coagulation factors

cascade

 [kas-kād´]
a series of steps or stages (as of a physiological process) that, once initiated, continues to the final step because each step is triggered by the preceding one, resulting in amplification of the signal, information, or effect at each stage. In electronics, the term is applied to multiple amplifiers. Examples in biochemistry include blood coagulation and the complement system.
coagulation cascade the series of steps beginning with activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways of coagulation, or of one of the related alternative pathways, and proceeding through the common pathway of coagulation to the formation of the fibrin clot.
The coagulation cascade. This scheme emphasizes the understanding of 1, the importance of the tissue factor pathway in initiating clotting in vivo; 2, the interactions between pathways; and 3, the pivotal role of thrombin in sustaining the cascade by feedback activation of coagulation factors. HMWK = high-molecular-weight kininogen; PK = prekallikrein; PL = phospholipid; PT = prothrombin; TF = tissue factor; Th = thrombin. From Schafer, 1994.

coagulation cascade

the series of steps beginning with activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways of coagulation and proceeding through the common pathway of coagulation to the formation of the fibrin clot. Each step involves activation of a proenzyme (zymogen), the activated form catalyzing activation of the following step. See also common pathway of coagulation, extrinsic pathway of coagulation, intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

Coagulation cascade

The sequence of biochemical activities, involving clotting factors, that stop bleeding by forming a clot.

coagulation

1. formation of a clot.
2. in surgery, the disruption of tissue by physical means to form an amorphous residuum, as in electrocoagulation and photocoagulation.

activated coagulation time (ACT)
a test of the intrinsic or common pathway of coagulation, using diatomaceous earth as an activating agent to hasten coagulation of whole blood, the time being measured. More sensitive than Lee-White or capillary tube tests. See also clotting time.
biterminal coagulation
see monopolar electrocoagulation.
coagulation cascade
the sequence of enzymatic reactions leading to the formation of a blood clot. Each is initiated by the preceding and, in turn, produces the enzyme that catalyzes the next with an amplification of the process as it progresses.
cerebrospinal coagulation
normal CSF does not coagulate. Inflammation of the meninges or contamination of the fluid by blood, possibly during collection, can cause coagulation in a sample.
coagulation defects
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
widespread formation of thromboses in the microcirculation, mainly within the capillaries. It is a secondary complication of a wide variety of disorders all of which activate in some way the intrinsic coagulation sequence. Paradoxically, the intravascular clotting ultimately produces hemorrhage because of rapid consumption of fibrinogen, platelets, prothrombin, and clotting factors V, VIII and X. Because of this pathology, DIC is sometimes called defibrination syndrome or consumption coagulopathy. Called also diffuse intravascular coagulation. Called also consumption coagulopathy, defibrination syndrome, defibrinogenation syndrome.
coagulation factors
see clotting factors. platelet factors also play a role in coagulation. They are designated by Arabic numerals from 1 to 4.
coagulation inhibitors
these systems prevent widescale intravascular coagulation as a result of minor injury. The important systems are c1-inactivator, antithrombin III, alpha1-antitrypsin, α2-macroglobulin, factor XIa inhibitor, lipoprotein factor Xa inhibitor.
coagulation necrosis
coagulation pathways
the coagulation cascade can follow alternative routes depending on the initiating factor. The extrinsic pathway is initiated by tissue thromboplastin (factor III) and involves calcium ions and factor VII. In the intrinsic pathway, factors XII, XI, IX and VIII are activated by exposure to subendothelial collagen or foreign surfaces. Both pathways lead to the activation of factor X and proceed along the common pathway, involving factors V, II, I and XIII, to the formation of a fibrin clot.
coagulation proteins
see clotting factors.
synovial coagulation
normal synovial fluid does not clot, but gels on standing (thixotropism). It contains no fibrinogen, nor any of the coagulation factors. Clotting is an indication of damage to the synovial membrane.
coagulation tests
are used to determine the integrity of the coagulation pathways, and platelet function. In general, the common tests for the intrinsic or common pathways are the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and activated coagulation time (ACT). One-stage prothrombin time (OSPT) is usually used to evaluate the extrinsic or common pathways, and platelet count, clot retraction, bleeding time and activated coagulation time reflect platelet numbers and function.
coagulation time
see clotting time.
unipolar coagulation
see bipolar electrocoagulation.
References in periodicals archive ?
This is thought to react with tissue factor and thus activate factor X, stimulating the common coagulation cascade and bypassing the intrinsic arm, which is inhibited (5).
This session also exposed the complexities of the coagulation cascade and the fact that we are now just beginning to understand how to control thrombosis and bleeding in response to environmental and genetic influences.
Active hemostats, such as THROMBIN-JMI([R]), the only bovine-derived thrombin currently available as a single agent, are biologically active agents that work directly at the end of the coagulation cascade (the process by which the multiple coagulation factors in the blood interact to form a clot).
QuikClot products are impregnated with a mineral called kaolin that has been clinically shown to accelerate the body's natural coagulation cascade, helping healthcare professionals, first responders, law enforcement officers, consumers and adventure and outdoor sports enthusiasts rapidly control bleeding.
These events traditionally are referred to as the blood coagulation cascade.
Factor Xa plays a pivotal role in the coagulation cascade and may represent a more targeted approach to anticoagulation therapy compared to current treatments that affect multiple factors in the coagulation pathway.
Here OMS721 has a potential therapeutic advantage over Soliris - in addition to its role in complement activation, MASP-2 is also directly involved in the coagulation cascade.
Upon contact with a bleeding surface, the matrix hydrates and the fibrinogen-thrombin reaction initiates the key step in the coagulation cascade.
Now in their third generation, QuikClot products in the new EMS line are infused with kaolin, a mineral that has been clinically shown to initiate the body's natural coagulation cascade, rapidly accelerating the clotting process without causing any exothermic reaction.
The product mimics the final steps of the blood coagulation cascade and forms a dense, strong cross-linked fibrin mesh to seal wounds.
The coagulation cascade can be divided into two functional pathways.
People with inhibitors to human FVIII may respond to porcine FVIII, replacing the missing step in their coagulation cascade.