Closed Skill Sport

A self-paced sport—e.g., golf, running—in which the environment is stable, unchanging and predictable; closed skill sports tend to require internally-directed attentional focus
References in periodicals archive ?
Namely, most of the research has focused either on specific types of sports, that is, open skill sport (such as karate, in which the participants fight in an environment that is changing rapidly) versus closed skill sport (such as gymnastics, in which the athletes perform in a relatively static environment) [23, 24], or on the level of competence of the athletes (i.e., experts versus novices) [25, 26].
With regard to the comparison between open skill sports and closed skill sports, it is shown that the VMI-E perspective is more used than VMI-I in open skill sports [18], while closed skill sport benefits from the VMI-I perspective [28, 29].
Examples: Golf, bowling, archery, most track and field events, competitive weightlifting, and tee-ball all have the requisites of closed skill sports.