Detection of Clonorchis
sinensis circulating antigen in sera from Chinese patients by immunomagnetic bead ELISA based on IgY.
2010) and Clonorchis
sinensis that causes clonorchiasis disease in humans (Lim et al.
sinensis- specific IgG in serum was positive in a dot immunogold filtration assay established by Wang et al . using soluble C.
Common instigators include the roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the Chinese liver fluke (Clonorchis
sinensis), and the sheep liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica).
Indeed, both species of liver flukes that most commonly infect humans (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis
sinensis) have been declared Group 1 carcinogens by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer [14, 15].
CCA risk factors include, but are not limited to, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, long-standing ulcerative colitis, infestation with Clonorchis
sinensis, Caroli's disease, and congenital hepatic fibrosis [2, 3, 8].
These cancers are rare in the United States; on the contrary, in Asia, particularly Thailand, infection with liver flukes of the genera Clonorchis
and Opisthorchis is often associated with cholangiocarcinoma of the intrahepatic bile ducts [1-3].
Potential risk factors of CCA are parasitic infections (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis
sinensis), bile duct disorders (biliary tract cysts and hepatolithiasis), toxins, complications (diabetes, cirrhosis, and obesity), alcohol consumption, and smoking .
Intrahepatic brown pigment stones are seen with infestation of bile ducts with Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis
trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Capillaria philippinensis, Ancylostoma duodenale, Clonorchis
sinensis, and even tapeworm proglottids (Figure 1).