The challenge of time: clock-drawing
and cognitive function in the elderly.
On the contrary, the training group improved their cognitive performance in delayed memory (p [less than or equal to] 0.001), recognition (p = 0.0284), clock-drawing
test (p = 0.01), digit forward test (p [less than or equal to] 0.001), digit backward test (p = 0.001), TMT A (p [less than or equal to] 0.001), and TMT B (p = 0.017).
test [sup] was used to assess executive function (EF) and working memory (WM).
Dehlin, "The clock-drawing
test," Age and Ageing, vol.
In addition, the ACE-R contains a clock-drawing
task, a 3-word recall task, an abstract reasoning task (Similarities) and a trail-making task (Mioshi, et al., 2006).
Executive functions were evaluated by the stroop test, digit span test, clock-drawing
test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) additionally to the first evaluation.
The women took three cognitive exams - the mini-mental statement examination to evaluate the global cognitive status, a clock-drawing
test to determine the women's executive functions (planning, problem-solving, verbal reasoning) and the Boston Abbreviated Test to assess the women's memory.
As stated by Shulman (2000), the clock-drawing
test meets clear criteria for a cognitive screening tool.
task engages inhibitory control and memory, while the confrontational naming task requires the recall of vocabulary and semantic knowledge.
This is a simple and validated way to test for impaired cognition or dementia using a three-item recall test and a clock-drawing
Furthermore, although the clock-drawing
test, visuospatial copying tasks, and trail making test B might not have absolute utility in identifying those at risk of driving impairment, measures of attention and visuospatial skills have been found to correlate with on-road driving performance.
test was developed nearly 10 years ago by Washington State University neurologist Soo Borson, MD, as a means of screening patients who may have had a language barrier with their healthcare providers.