Long-term spatial memory in Clark's nutcracker
Foraging of Clark's nutcracker
on rapidly changing pine seed resources.
occur throughout the range of limber pine (see Peterson 1990), and act as limber pine seed dispersers (Vander Wall and Balda 1977; Lanner 1980; Lanner and Vander Wall 1980; Tomback and Kramer 1980; Benkman et al.
Caption: Far left: The oldest recorded whitebark clocked in at 1,376 years old--and probably looked very similar to this tree; Above: Clark's nutcrackers
have a sublingual pouch that can hold 50-150 seeds at one time, helping them cache tens of thousands over the course of a summer
When Balda gave individual Clark's nutcrackers
a second chance to cache seeds in the same sandy aviary floor, the birds often choose different hiding places.
These tree clusters may originate from the caches of Clark's nutcrackers
, chipmunks, or other seed-storing animals, or possibly from the accumulation of wind-dispersed seeds in depressions or against objects (Y.
At UCLA, I looked into the literature and discovered that little was known about the Clark's nutcracker
even take--or sometimes beg for--handouts from campers.
This finding is consistent with the existence of a cognitive map in Clark's nutcrackers
, but it's not conclusive," says psychologist Alan C.
Therefore, another technique researchers are testing in the Grouse Mountain experiment is logging small patches of forest to create the kind of clearings where the Clark's nutcrackers
like to cache their seeds.
are adept at prying seeds from the whitebark cones and storing them in a throat pouch with the capacity to hold 80 to 100 of the nutritious nuts.
have a specially developed pouch for transporting whitebark seeds.