Other microbes that can secrete these enzymes such as Enterobacter cloacae, Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella oxytoca, Providencia stuartii and Citrobacter amalonaticus
were less widespread in the hospital environment (10/351, 2.8%) (Figure 1).
mirabilis, Corynebacterium 4/M No striatum, Citrobacter amalonaticus
7 Klebsiella pneumoniae, C.
HDB18 was Citrobacter amalonaticus
which was also reported [29, 30].
Extracts of these plants were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherischia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Citrobacter amalonaticus
. The drug oxytetracycline was used as a positive control.
Among the species isolated, the Citrobacter amalonaticus
composes the common intestinal microbiota of human beings, and it is not well established its role in human disease, besides together with other enterobacteria members, it has been isolated from cockroaches in Malaysia (21), while Citrobacter freundii is reported to be associated to mortality in 22% of human patients with predominant infection in the intraabdominal region, as reported in a hospital in Taipei (6), as also in gallbladder disease (7), becoming a worldwide emerging nosocomial pathogen with escalating incidence of multidrug resistance, even though it colonizes natural environment, particularly in health care settings, which make it difficult to eradicate.
Three species are recognised in clinical samples: Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri (Formerly Citrobacter Diverses) and Citrobacter amalonaticus
. (1) Citrobacter spp.
15 Klebsiella pneumoniae 15 Klebsiella ozaenae 12 Staphylococcus haemolyticus 11 Corynebacterium striatum 10 Citrobacter amalonaticus
09 Micrococcus spp.
A novel phytase appA from Citrobacter amalonaticus
CGMCC 1696: gene cloning and overexpression in Pichia pastoris.
Three TC species of Salmonella were identified in the water at Pina Station, as well as three TTC: Citrobacter amalonaticus
(Werkman and Gillen, 1932), Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia (Edwin Klebs, 1887).