Normalized to the total protein, the activity of respiratory complex from 50+ d to 100+ d fetal hearts significantly increases by 6.4-fold for Complex I, by 3.6-fold for Complex II, by 2.1-fold for Complex III, by 3.1-fold for Complex IV, and by 3.5-fold for citrate synthase
. This increase in respiratory complex activity during fetal heart development is at least a few times higher than that seen in PSC-CM culture, indicating inadequate maturation of mitochondria in prolonged in vitro culture.
Garland, "The kinetic properties of citrate synthase
from rat liver mitochondria," The Biochemical Journal, vol.
In addition, citrate synthase
activity was significantly higher in the training group, and the increase was also a function of the distance run (r = 0.62, p < 0.05; Figure 2).
Neither potassium concentration nor citrate synthase
activity contributed further to predicting exponential growth rate of either muscle.
Away, "Citrate synthase
expression and enzyme activity after endurance training in cardiac and skeletal muscles," Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.
 Nonstandard abbreviations: MEGS, mitochondrial energy-generating system; PDHc, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; TCA, tricarboxylic acid; OXPHOS, oxidative phosphorylation; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum; SETH, sucrose, EDTA, Tris-HCl, and heparin; ROCR, relative oxygen consumption rate; CS, citrate synthase
; RFU, relative fluorescence units; ANT, adenine nucleotide transporter; CCCP, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenyl hydrazone; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
For the assessment of metabolic capacities and their effects on the reproductive cycle, we measured the glycolytic enzymes phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), pyruvate kinase (PK), one enzyme of protein metabolism (aspartate aminotransferase [AAT]), and the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase
(CS) in the adductor muscle of scallops P.
Squid muscle citrate synthase
: Control of carbon entry into the Krebs cycle.
Furthermore the mitochondrial functionality was estimated by measuring the activity of two enzymes, cytochrome C oxidase (complex IV) and citrate synthase
, involved in oxidative metabolism and Krebs cycle, respectively.
Mitochondrial (mt) DNA content, citrate synthase
activity, transcript levels of some nuclear- and mitochondrial-coded genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV [COX-IV], 16S rRNA, COX-I) and of some factors involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [PPARgamma] coactivator-1alpha [PGC-1alpha], mitochondrial transcription factor A mitochondrial [TFAM], mitochondrial transcription factor 2B [TFB2]), as well as the protein content of PGC-1alpha were determined.
Notably, other MRC activities, as well as citrate synthase
, a mitochondrial marker enzyme, were largely unaffected.
KEY WORDS: ageing, Barents Sea, citrate synthase
, cytochrome C oxidase, growth, environmental temperature, Mytilus edulis, North Sea, respiration rate, White Sea