A double bond on the alkene moieties are believed to be in the cis configuration
(MacConnell et al.
In natural conditions, the chemical structure of most unsaturated fats is in what scientists call the cis configuration
. But when food manufacturers hydrogenate cheap vegetable oils--to convert them into solid fats (such as shortening) for use in processed foods--natural cis fats morph into unnatural trans fats.
If the alleles DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 were present on a single chromosome (in cis configuration
), haplotype was indicated as DQ2.5.
Pinoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (C18: 3-5,9,12) that has double bonds in the cis configuration
. Korean pine nuts are one of the richest sources of fatty acids, containing about 40 times more pinoleic acid than, for example, Italian stone pine nuts.
Particles with these shapes allow for the preservation of the harmless cis configuration
in the hydrogenated fats, and other lattices found by the researchers favour the production of trans fats.
For 1,4-CHDA.NPG, the [alpha]-proton on the cycloaliphatic ring produced a peak at [delta] 2.71 ppm for the cis configuration
, and a peak at [delta] 2.36 ppm for the trans structure.