A14.2.01.027 Long ciliary nerves
A14.2.01.028 Posterior ethmoidal nerve A14.2.01.029 Anterior meningeal branch A14.2.01.030 Anterior ethmoidal nerve A14.2.01.031 Internal nasal branches A14.2.01.032 Lateral nasal branches A14.2.01.033 Medial nasal branches A14.2.01.034 External nasal nerve A14.2.01.035 Infratrochlear nerve A14.2.01.036 Palpebral branches A14.2.01.025 N.
From here, they divide into two long ciliary nerves
to reach the iris dilator muscle.
The tumour cells may infiltrate through the Bruch's membrane into the choroid and then invade either blood vessels or ciliary nerves
(34,35) Possible causes of pain include thermal diffusion into the choroid, stimulation of the ciliary nerves
in suprachoroidal space, thermal diffusion to the RNFL or direct thermal damage to the posterior ciliary nerves
The fourth neuron leaves the ciliary ganglion and passes with the short ciliary nerves
to innervate the sphincter pupillae (see Figure 2, page 54).
Fibres from these axons form the long and short posterior ciliary nerves
. These sympathetic nerve fibres innervate the dilator of the iris.
The ciliary nerves
of the trigeminal nerve entering the sclera are anatomically located close to the optic nerve at the posterior globe.
Parasympathetic nerve fibers synapse in the ciliary ganglion and enter the ocular globe through the short ciliary nerves
to innervate the iris, the ciliary body and ciliary muscle, and parts of the iridocorneal angle (uveal trabecular meshwork and scleral spur).
The sensory nerves reach the eye through the nasociliary branch of the ophthalmic nerve , which branches typically into two long ciliary nerves
, one nasal and the other temporal, which course directly to the posterior pole of the eye, and a communicating branch carrying sensory fibers to the ciliary ganglion .
(32-35) Extraocular tumor extension can occur through different routes, mainly the vortex veins, aqueous channels, the ciliary arteries, and ciliary nerves
; all are associated with a poor prognosis.
The ciliary nerves
that lie beneath the ciliary bands in the larval arms, the esophagus, and a hitherto undescribed network associated with the pylorus all show SALMFamide-like immunoreactivity.
Histopathological studies of eyes affected with HZO showed perineural and intraneural lymphocytic infiltration of the long posterior ciliary nerves
. Perivasculitis or vasculitis was evident in vessels accompanying the involved nerves.