The tumour cells may infiltrate through the Bruch's membrane into the choroid and then invade either blood vessels or ciliary nerves
34,35) Possible causes of pain include thermal diffusion into the choroid, stimulation of the ciliary nerves
in suprachoroidal space, thermal diffusion to the RNFL or direct thermal damage to the posterior ciliary nerves
The fourth neuron leaves the ciliary ganglion and passes with the short ciliary nerves to innervate the sphincter pupillae (see Figure 2, page 54).
Sympathetic fibres travel via the nasociliary nerve and the long ciliary nerves until they reach the ciliary body and dilator pupillae muscle.
Fibres from these axons form the long and short posterior ciliary nerves
The ciliary nerves that lie beneath the ciliary bands in the larval arms, the esophagus, and a hitherto undescribed network associated with the pylorus all show SALMFamide-like immunoreactivity.
The ciliary nerves show S2-Li IR, rather than S1-Li or 5HT-Li IR (Fig.
Histopathological studies of eyes affected with HZO showed perineural and intraneural lymphocytic infiltration of the long posterior ciliary nerves
If one (or both) pupils are poorly reactive to light, this localises the lesion to the parasympathetic pathway (brainstem, third nerve, ciliary ganglion, short ciliary nerves and iris sphincter); in this scenario, the anisocoria increases in bright light conditions.
The third-order or post-ganglionic neuron travels on the surface of the internal carotid artery into the intracranial space and cavernous sinus to arrive at the iris dilator through the long ciliary nerves.
Parasympathetic fibers originate in the Edinger Westphal nucleus of the IIIrd cranial nerve in the orbit and synapses in the ciliary ganglion within the short ciliary nerves
and in the ciliary body.
The cornea is innervated by a network of nerve endings located primarily in the anterior stroma, and is supplied by long ciliary nerves
originating from the trigeminal nerve.