Kim et al., "Cell death is induced by ciglitazone
, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist, independently of PPARgamma in human glioma cells," Biophysical Research Communications, vol.
The use of ciglitazone
, a PPAR[gamma] agonist, in normoxia did not lead to PGC reprogramming (Figure 1(d)), indicating that PPAR[gamma] alone is unable to provoke a metabolic shift that, in turn, induces PGC reprogramming.
The expression of PPAR[gamma] in gastric cancer tissue was reported to be markedly reduced compared to its expression in normal tissue (19), and recent studies have indicated that apoptosis is induced following the administration of PPAR[gamma] ligands such as ciglitazone
or 15-deoxy-12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2) in the colorectal carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and Colo-205 (20), and in MCG-803 human gastric cancer cells (21).
Twenty-four hours after cells reached 100% confluence, cells were differentiated by 72 hours of treatment in preadipocyte differentiation medium containing no serum, 8 [micro]g/mL d-biotin, 0.5 [micro]g/mL insulin, 400 ng/mL dexamethasone, 44 [micro]g/mL 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthin (IBMX), 9 ng/mL L-thyroxine, and 3 [micro]g/mL ciglitazone
(PromoCell) with or without 1 g/L fructose.
Similar expression pattern was observed after treatment of ciglitazone
to porcine satellite cells by Singh et al.
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin E [[alpha]-tocopherol (AT)], catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), ciglitazone
, and lovastatin were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company.
, and pioglitazone are the newest additions to this family of drugs, and are currently under study in clinical trials (Bajaj & Simonson, 1997; Janeway et al., 1998).
The TZDs rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, and ciglitazone
, all resulted in a decrease of myocardial infarct size.
, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c (PPARc), mediates PPARc activation and moderates the activation of AMPK, causing a decrease in the expression of LOX-1.
Certain members of the thiazolidinediones family of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR[gamma]) agonists, such as TG and ciglitazone
, possess a beneficial action against ROS, inflammation, and adipocytokine dysregulation [23, 24].
The most significant position of these molecules seems to be as they are a subset of commercially employed noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), insulin sensitizing agents (Figure 1) such as epalrestat, ciglitazone
, AD-5061, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and so forth.
2006) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-[gamma] ligand ciglitazone
(Chen and Harrison 2005), both xenobiotics that induce NF-[kappa]B activation, have been shown to include p65 phosphorylation.