chromosomal

(redirected from Chromosomal abnormality)
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chro·mo·som·al

(krō'mō-sō'măl),
Pertaining to chromosomes.

chromosomal

chro·mo·som·al

(krōmŏ-sōmăl)
Pertaining to chromosomes.

chro·mo·som·al

(krōmŏ-sōmăl)
Pertaining to chromosomes.

chromosomal,

adj relating to chromosome, or a configuration within the cell's nucleus that contains a linear thread of DNA that conveys genetic data.

chromosomal

emanating from or pertaining to chromosome.

chromosomal aberration
see chromosomal abnormality (below).
chromosomal abnormality
abnormal karyotype; abnormalities can be detected before birth by means of amniocentesis, or after birth, but many are probably never observed because they cause death and disposal of the fetus. The abnormalities are either of number, or of composition of the individual chromosomes. Monosomy and trisomy are examples of numerical abnormalities. Translocations are examples of abnormalities of structure where parts of one chromosome have been transferred to another. The cause of these abnormalities is not known. Their importance is that many of them are linked with structural or functional defects of the animal body. The best known ones in veterinary medicine are those that are related to infertility, e.g. translocation 1/29, translocation 27/29.
chromosomal analysis
fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis or lymphocytes from a blood sample can be cultured in the laboratory until they divide. Cell division is arrested in mid-metaphase by the drug Colcemid, a derivative of colchicine. The chromosomes can be stained by one of several techniques that produce a distinct pattern of light and dark bands along the chromosomes, and each chromosome can be recognized by its size and banding pattern. The chromosomal characteristics of an animal are referred to as its karyotype. This also refers to a photomicrograph of a cell nucleus that is cut apart and rearranged so that the individual chromosomes are in order and labeled. The autosomes are numbered roughly in order of decreasing length. The sex chromosomes are labeled X and Y. Karyotyping is useful in determining the presence of chromosome defects.
chromosomal banding
see banding (2).
chromosomal chimerism
see chimera.
chromosomal crossover
chromosomal deletion
in genetics, loss from a chromosome of genetic material.
chromosomal inversion
see inversion (2).
chromosomal linkage
see linkage (2).
chromosomal mapping
see genetic map.
chromosomal non-disjunction
failure of the chromatids or chromosomes to separate (disjoin) during meiosis.
chromosomal replication
chromosomal walking
a technique for identification and isolation of contiguous sequences of genomic DNA.
chromosomal X inactivation
only one of a pair of female (X) chromosomes in the one cell is active, the other is inactivated.
References in periodicals archive ?
The most common chromosomal abnormality detected in this study was Down's syndrome, which was similar to the result shown by other workers.
Interestingly, 40% of the time the abnormality was not Down syndrome, but another chromosomal abnormality Similar analyses for trisomies 13 and 18--the other major abnormalities targeted in first-trimester combined screening--yielded similar statistics (Prenat.
Dubai: Non-invasive pre-natal screening for Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality, is being recommended by experts in neo-natal and maternity care.
Keywords: Amniocentesis, Chromosomal abnormality, pregnancy loss (JPMA 62: 545; 2012).
Infants born with either chromosomal abnormality, both of which are related to the most common trisomy, Down syndrome (trisomy 21), have a grim prognosis: Up to 70% of fetuses who are affected by trisomy 18 result in miscarriages; of live births, about half die within a week and only one in 20 live for one year.
A clinical trial has shown that addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy leads to a near doubling of median survival time in patients with a form of brain tumor (oligodendroglioma) that carries a chromosomal abnormality called the 1p19q co-deletion.
It hugely cuts the risk of miscarriage and can eliminate the chance of other conditions linked to chromosomal abnormality, including Down's syndrome, Turner syndrome and Edward's syndrome.
Associated chromosomal abnormality in 1-5% (if no associated abnormalites).
48%) had clonal chromosomal abnormality (Table II).
It allowed scientists to pinpoint signs of chromosomal abnormality in 18 pregnant women.
A CHROMOSOMAL abnormality which affects people with Down's syndrome also guards against cancer, research has shown.