In the setting of a known allergy to lidocaine or bupivacaine, an ester agent such as tetracaine, chloroprocaine
, or benzocaine might be used (53).
3% as local anesthetic was reported to provide the advantage of earlier discharge of patients undergoing minor orthopedic surgery .
Ugur applied four different anesthetics intrathecally (0.5% mepivacaine, 4% mupivacaine, 0.5% etidocaine, and 2% chloroprocaine
) structural changes in the spinal cord were observed in the dura, pia, and arachnoid.
Hypotension therefore may appear as a more prominent feature of spinal than epidural blockade and of blockade with an agent of rapid onset such as chloroprocaine
, not because of any differential neural effects by different techniques or drugs.
In these studies, for local anesthesia, lidocaine, chloroprocaine
, and xylocaine were used.
Janicki, "Intravenous chloroprocaine
attenuates hemodynamic changes associated with direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation," Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol.
Hence,some studies haverecommended the preparation of a freshly buffered mixture prior to injection.10The antibacterial activity of lidocaine has however, not been found to get diminished by the bicarbonate buffer.11Ong et al.12however, suggested that increasing pH in buffered lignocaine is unable to fully explain the minimization of pain on injection, as clinical experiences have proven that procaine and chloroprocaine
, although more acidic than lignocaine, are less painful on infiltration.
Day-case spinal anaesthesia with short-acting local anaesthetics such as lidocaine and chloroprocaine
can provide short times to discharge [6, 7].
The ester group of local anaesthetic agents include: cocaine, chloroprocaine
, procaine and tetracaine.
Local anesthetics are given by injection or topically, and include benzocaine, bupivacaine (Marcaine, Sensorcaine), chloroprocaine
(Nesacaine), camphor, dibucaine (Nuper-cainal), levobupivacaine (Chirocaine), lidocaine (Xylocaine, Octocaine), mepivacaine (Carbocaine, Polocaine), pramoxine, prilocaine (Citanest), procaine (Novocaine), ropivacaine (Naropin), and tetracaine (Pontocaine).
A study comparing the use of lidocaine with chloroprocaine
, a shorter acting anesthetic, for DPNB in newborns confirmed that both medications were effective and safe (Spencer et al., 1992).