Chlamydophila

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Chlamydophila

(kla-mid-ō-fil'ă),
A bacterial genus with a complex obligatory intracellular life cycle; the infective form is the elementary body that penetrates the host cell, replicating as the rediculate body by binary fission; replication occurs in a vacuole called the inclusion body; lacking peptidoglycan in cell walls. Conditions associated with Chlamydophila include pneumonitis in cattle, sheep, swine, cats, goats, and horses; bovine sporadic encephalomyelitis, enteritis of calves; (C. pneumoniae, C. pecorum subtypes); enzootic abortion of ewes (C. abortus); also affecting cats (C. felis); guinea pigs (C. caviae), and C. psittaci, the agent of psittacosis/ornithosis in psittacine and nonpsittacine birds.

Chla·myd·o·phil·a

(kla-mid-ō-fil'ă, klă-midō-filă)
A newly named genus in the family Chlamydiaceae, including species formerly assigned to the genus Chlamydia.

Chlamydophila

(kla-mi-dof'i-la) [Gr. chlamys, cloak + ?]
A bacterial genus of intracellular parasites of the family Chlamydiaceae, comprising six species, of which C. pneumoniae and C. psittaci infect humans. The organisms are characterized as bacteria because of the composition of their cell walls and their reproduction by binary fission, but they reproduce only within cells. These species cause a variety of diseases. See: Chlamydia

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

A species of Chlamydophila that is an important cause of pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis. It is believed to be transmitted from person to person by respiratory tract secretions (e.g., by airborne droplets). Most cases are mild and rarely require hospitalization. It is possible that this organism is a factor in the development of coronary artery disease.

Treatment

Treatment consists of daily tetracycline, macrolide, or fluoroquinolone for 14 to 21 days.

Chlamydophila psittaci

A species of Chlamydophila common in birds and animals. Pet owners, pet shop employees, poultry workers, and workers in meat-processing plants are frequently exposed to C. psittaci.

Symptoms

After an incubation period of 5 to 15 days, nonspecific symptoms (e.g., malaise, headache, fever) develop; progression to pneumonia is serious and may be fatal. Alternatively, the disease may resemble infectious mononucleosis with fever, pharyngitis, hepatosplenomegaly, and adenopathy. Severity may vary from inapparent to mild to fatal systemic disease.

Prognosis

The fatality rate is approx. 20% in untreated patients.

Treatment

Treatment consists of tetracycline or doxycycline for 10 to 21 days.

References in periodicals archive ?
Seroprevalence of Chlamydophila abortus infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) in Qinghai, China.
Em caprinos e ovinos, a Chlamydophila abortus e um dos agentes mais frequentemente isolados em casos de aborto, em varios paises do mundo (RODOLAKIS, 2001), alem disso, constitui-se um risco a saude humana, sendo reconhecido o seu potencial zoonotico (AITKEN, 1993).
The most important organisms are Chlamydophila abortus, toxoplasma and listeria.
fetus), Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Brucella ovis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Chlamydophila abortus e Neospora caninum (KIRKBRIDE, 1993; WEST et al., 2006; ENTRICAN et al., 2010).
Abortion in woman caused by caprine Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1).
A study of the costs of Chlamydophila abortus (enzootic abortion or EAE) in lowlandsheep flocks estimates that losses due to abortion and the birth of weak and sickly lambs that die soon after birth can reach pounds 5,000 over a five year period for every 100 ewes infected.
Although Chlamydophila abortus is a known etiologic agent of ruminant abortion, several novel species of Chlamydia-like organisms have recently emerged as putative ruminant abortifacients.
venerealis (HUM et al., 1997; VARGAS et al., 2003), Neospora caninum (BASZLER et al., 1999; ELLIS et al., 1999; COLLANTES-FERNANDEZ et al., 2002; PEREIRA-BUENO et al., 2003), Mycoplasma bovis (AYLING et al., 1997; SUBRAMANIAM et al., 1998; HAYMAN & HIRST, 2003), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (KOBAYASHI et al., 1998; HIROSE et al., 2001; CARDOSO et al., 2006), Chlamydophila abortus (MADICO et al., 2000; LAROUCAU et al., 2001; DEGRAVES et al., 2003), Salmonella enterica ser.
Surprisingly, ocular trachoma reference strain A/SA-1 contained clones of Chlamydophila abortus. C.