(23) Foreigners could not gain anything even by trying to acquire the "rudiments" of Chinese civilisation
. Foreigners had nothing to offer China, least of all the merchants' trinkets.
In terms of cultural integration, there were certain periods when the Chinese civilisation
lost its self-confidence and the country tended to be isolated from the rest of the world.
This entire process is described by analysing administrative developments, the influence of Chinese civilisation
on local cultures, indigenous impacts on Han migrants and settlers, the rise of new 'identities', economic changes, the collapse of the cowrie currency system and so forth.
began in the Yuhang area 5,000 years ago.
Shandong province is seen as the birthplace of Chinese civilisation
and is believed to have the oldest parts of the Great Wall and the earliest city, with the ruins of the ancient Longshan City.
Historically, the Chinese worldview emphasised the unity of Heaven, Earth and humankind, the power of the emperor as Son of Heaven and the belief that barbarian peoples would be drawn by the virtue of the emperor to recognise the superiority of Chinese civilisation
and the cosmic status of the emperor.
Tellingly, the introduction of the guidebook on the Tang waxworks acknowledges the dilemma: 'The investments in this wax museum offer a small contribution to the Chinese civilisation
though investors know that it is difficult to have a return on the capital in a short time'.
Nussaibeh and Imnadze also met with the Vice-Governor of the Shaanxi Province, Wei Zengjun, in the city of Xi'an, one of the cradles of Chinese civilisation
and history where they visited the Terracotta Army Museum, a Unesco World Heritage site and the Xi'an Great Mosque.
He said that acquiring the Chinese language will open wider horizons for the learners to gain insights into the Chinese civilisation
and its rich cultural, scientific and economic aspects.
"There are people who want to take a peek into a culture and I have great admiration for example with Mandarin Oriental, it presents beautifully the culture of the Chinese civilisation
. So wherever they are in the world, whether New York or Geneva, or in The East, they are representing the culture of the Chinese civilisation