Chili Pepper


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Related to Chili Pepper: capsaicin

capsicum

(kap-si-kum) ,

Capzasin-HP

(trade name),

Zostrix

(trade name),

capsaicin

(trade name),

chili pepper

(trade name),

African bird pepper

(trade name),

Capsicum annuum

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: analgesics
Oral: Dyspepsia Topical: Arthritis, lower back pain, and neuralgias Intranasal: Headache, perennial rhinitis

Action

Binds to nociceptors in the skin, causing neuronal excitation, heightened sensitivity and cutaneous vasodilation. Initially, a burning or pricking sensation is produced. With repeated use, a period of desensitization occurs caused by substance P depletion.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased pain sensation.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Well absorbed when applied to skin.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system to active metabolites.
Half-life: 1.6 hrs (topical).

Time/action profile

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POUnknownUnknownUnknown
TopicalUnknownUnknownUnknown

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity or allergy; Injured skin or open wounds (topical); Infectious or inflammatory GI conditions (oral); Obstetric: Pregnancy and lactation (oral).
Use Cautiously in: Obstetric: Pregnancy and lactation (topical); Pediatric: Safety and efficacy has not been shown in children; Kidney and/or liver disease (long-term, high doses); Surgery (discontinue use 2 wk prior to procedure).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Dermatologic

  • burning (topical)
  • erythema (topical)
  • urticaria (topical)
  • flushing
  • sweating

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • cough
  • rhinorrhea
  • lacrimation,

Gastrointestinal

  • GI irritation
  • diarrhea

Hematologic

  • bleeding

Interactions

May ↑ bleeding risk with antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants.May ↑ absorption of theophylline.May ↑ bleeding risk when taken with clove, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and ginkgo.
Oral (Adults) Powder—30–120 mg 3 times daily; Tincture—0.6–2 mL/dose; Oleoresin—0.6–2 mg/dose.
Topical (Adults) Apply cream 3 to 4 times daily (may take up to 14 days to see an effect).
Intranasal (Adults) 0.1 mL of a 10 mM suspension (300mcg/day) applied to nostril.

Availability

Powder:
Capsules:
Tincture:
Topical cream: 0.025% (Zostrix®), 0.075% (Zostrix-HP®), 0.1% (Capzacin-HP®)

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess pain intensity and location before and periodically during therapy.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Monitor: liver and kidney function tests in patients receiving oral therapy. Notes: Capsicum (or cayenne) alters temperature regulation and stimulates circulation.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Acute pain (Indications)

Implementation

  • Topical: Apply to affected area not more than 3–4 times daily. Avoid getting medication into eyes or on broken or irritated skin. Do not bandage tightly.
    • Topical lidocaine may be applied during the first 1–2 wk of treatment to reduce initial discomfort.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient on the correct method for application. Rub cream into affected area well so that little or no cream is left on the surface. Gloves should be worn during application or hands should be washed immediately after application. If application is to hands for arthritis, do not wash hands for at least 30 min after application.
  • Advise patient to apply missed doses as soon as possible unless almost time for next dose. Pain relief lasts only as long as capsaicin is used regularly.
  • Inform patient that transient burning may occur with application, especially if applied less than 3–4 times daily. Burning usually disappears after the first few days but may continue for 2–4 wks or longer. Burning is increased by heat, sweating, bathing in warm water, humidity and clothing. Burning usually decreases in frequency and intensity the longer capsaicin is used. Decreasing number of daily doses will not lessen burning but may decrease amount of pain relief and may prolong period of burning.
  • Caution patient to flush area with water if capsaicin gets into eyes and to wash with warm but not hot, soapy water if capsaicin gets on other sensitive areas of the body. A diluted vinegar solution can be used to remove capsicum cream (capsaicin is not water washable).
  • Instruct patients with herpes zoster (shingles) not to apply capsaicin cream until lesions have completely healed.
  • Advise patient to discontinue use and notify health care professional if pain persists longer than 1 mo, worsens, or if signs of infection occur.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in discomfort associated with:.
    • postherpetic neuralgia.
    • disbetic neuropathy.
    • rheumatoid arthritis.
    • osteiarthritis.
  • Pain relief usually begins within 1–2 wks with arthritis, 2–4 wks with nauralgia, and 4–6 wks with neuralgias of the head and neck.
(1) A condiment used in certain cuisines, in particular Mexican, that is particular high in capsaicin
(2) Cayenne, see there, Capsicum frutescens
The intensity of the ‘sting’ of hot chillis is measured in Scoville units
References in periodicals archive ?
At present, chili peppers are grown on a 4.4 million hectare-territory.
"Although the mechanism by which peppers could delay mortality is far from certain, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels, which are primary receptors for pungent agents such as capsaicin (the principal component in chili peppers), may in part be responsible for the observed relationship," the study authors said.
Explorer Ferdinand Magellan is credited with introducing chili peppers into Africa and Asia, continents that have since incorporated them into their cuisines and pharmacopeias.
For this chili pepper study, the researchers used these two traditional approaches but also considered historical languages, looking for the earliest linguistic evidence that a cultivated chili pepper existed.
Citing complaints from nearby residents that pungent chili pepper fumes were irritating their eyes and throats and causing headaches, city officials sued to immediately shut down production until the company could find a way to block the smell.
Besides its medicinal benefits, the chili pepper is a nutritious addition to your diet.
India's Bhut Jolokia is the hottest chili pepper in the world.
Already an important moniker of spiciness on Asian-American menus of many stripes, the hot red chili pepper has become a celebrity in its own right in the U.S., spawning chili pepper specialty outlets selling everything from hot sauce to anthropomorphic chili dolls; chili pepper statues that introduce their chili-centered cities to the world (Las Cruces, NM; Pueblo, CO); and fortuitously colored chili pepper-shaped Christmas tree lights.
We didn't know then that spicy chili peppers actually have anti-inflammatory activity and heal stomach and duodenal ulcers.
The bhut jolokia pepper, considered by Guinness World Records to be the world's hottest chili pepper, tops the scale at a whopping 1,001,304 SHU.
"In 2007, there is an awareness of the melding of diverse cultural influences, and Chili Pepper is a reflection of exotic tastes both on the tongue and to the eye.
Hosted by Fuerte the Chihuahua and his amigo Fuego, a chili pepper, Mommy Teach Me Spanish takes its viewers on an adventurous exploration of any nine year old's daily life, while informing and educating its viewers of the Spanish descriptive wordings, commands, phrases, numbers, nursery rhymes, numbers 1-20, bedtime routine and other popular sayings.