In regards to only child status and childhood gender nonconformity, the effect of gender on GIQC scores was significant, F(1, 2285) = 59.803, p < .001, such that girls showed more gender variance than boys.
Birth order and recalled childhood gender nonconformity in Samoan men and fa'afafine.
Partial contents: "Barriers and Facilitators to Engagement and Retention in Care Among Transgender Women Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus," by Jae Sevelius, Enzo Patouhas, JoAnne Keatley, & Mallory Johnson; "Physical Activity Disparities in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Youth Ages 12-22 Years Old: Roles of Childhood Gender Nonconformity
and Athletic Self-Esteem," by Jerel Calzo, Andrea Roberts, Heather Corliss, Emily Blood, Emily Kroshus, & S.
They discovered genetic influences on sexual orientation (25 percent) and childhood gender nonconformity
Some current psychological theories propose that both the child's temperament and a problematic family environment account for childhood gender nonconformity. Zucker and Bradley (2004) hypothesized that gender-nonconforming children are constitutionally anxious and sensitive to parental dynamics, which may include marital discord, conflict about matters of masculinity and femininity, and possible psychopathology.
The most common outcome of childhood gender nonconformity is development of gay/ lesbian identity in adolescence or adulthood, without persisting GID.
Sexual orientation and childhood gender nonconformity
: evidence from home videos.
Press, 1992) (greater incidence of childhood gender nonconformity
among gay men "makes it plausible to expect that effeminacy would be more common among homosexual than among heterosexual adults" even absent repression).
Pathologized and treated for decades as a mental illness (APA, 1980; 2000a), childhood gender nonconformity would seem to be imbued with new meaning, as evidenced by a growing number of public voices claiming gender variance as part of human diversity (Ehrensaft, 2011, 2012; Hill & Menvielle, 2009; Lev, 2004; Menvielle, 2012; Spack et al, 2012).
Childhood gender nonconformity: a risk indicator for childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress in youth.