The effective immune response to HCV infection requires efficient recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells (monocytes and T lymphocytes) to the infected liver in which chemokines and chemokine receptors
are involved and play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C (8,9).
HSCs are capable of expressing different chemokine receptors
; such as CXC chemokine receptor
(CXCR) 3; C-C chemokine receptor
(CCR) 5; CCR7; and ligands, including chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, CCL3, CCL5, CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 1, CXCL8, CXCL9, and CXCL10.
Abbot et al., "Expression of functional CXCR4 chemokine receptors
on human colonic epithelial cells," Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
Peripherally activated lymphocytes are rarely able to traffic to mucosal sites due to low, or lack of expression, specific adhesion and chemokine receptors
required for entry into these sites.
Differential expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors
shapes the inflammatory response in rejecting human liver transplants.
CVC is a once-daily, oral, Phase III ready potent immunomodulator that blocks two chemokine receptors
, CCR2 and CCR5, which are involved in inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways.
Because these chemokine receptors
are expressed preferentially on lymphocytes, only lymphocytes exhibit firm adhesion via activated LFA-1, which then binds to the immunoglobulin-like-domain-containing adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on the surface of HEV ECs.
These similarities between results obtained from WGCNA and those from DAVID bioinformatics and PANTHER database analyses highlight the result that tDCS induces change in signaling pathways, especially involving cytokine and chemokine receptors
, which in turn have important effects on how neural cells are communicating, metabolizing, and structuring.
Each leukocyte subpopulation expresses a characteristic set of chemokine receptors
that belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors .
HIV-1 isolates are categorized based on the chemokine receptors
they recruit for entry.
Peripheral Ccl3 [47, 48] and Ccl3 in the spinal cord [49, 50] can produce pain behaviors through the activation of chemokine receptors
in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG).