chemical warfare

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The use of chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, deployed as gases; the tremendous morbidity caused by such weapons in World War I—killing or injuring roughly 1.3 million soldiers—led to their ban under the ‘Geneva Protocol’ of 1925

chemical warfare

Waging war with toxic chemical agents. Agents include nerve gases; agents that cause temporary blindness, paralysis, hallucinations, or deafness; irritants to the eyes and lungs; blistering agents, e.g., mustard gas; defoliants; and herbicides.

Patient care

Victims of a chemical exposure or attack require decontamination, ideally on site as rapidly as possible by specially equipped and trained Emergency Medical Services (EMS)/fire personnel or hospital-based health care professionals. Decontamination includes isolation of the victim, preferably outdoors or in a sealed, specially ventilated room; removal of all of the victim's clothing and jewelry; protection of any part of the victim's body that has not been exposed to toxins; repeated irrigation and flushing of exposed skin with water (a dilute wound-cleansing solution, such as Dakin’s solution, may be used on skin but not on the eyes or within penetrating wounds); additional irrigation of wounded skin with sterile solution (typically for about 10 min longer than the irrigation of intact skin); irrigation of the eyes with saline solution (about 15 min); cleansing beneath the surface of exposed fingernails or toenails; and collection and disposal of effluent and contaminated clothing. To avoid secondary injuries and exposures, trained personnel who carry out decontamination must wear chemical masks with a filtered respirator, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), and splash-resistant protective clothing that covers all skin and body surfaces and is impervious to all chemicals. Following decontamination, victims require triage and treatment.

Treatments for chemical exposures include both supportive care (such as the administration of oxygen, intravenous fluids, analgesics, topical remedies, and psychosocial support) and the administration of antidotes or chemical antagonists such as physostigmine. Details of the treatment for most specific exposures may be found in references such as the National Library of Medicine’s website: www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/Tox/ChemWar.html. See: biological warfare.

References in periodicals archive ?
Why this continued secrecy when the values that drove these chemical wars have been overturned?
Of all these chemical wars, only the Italian use of mustard gas against Ethiopians in 1936 has been well documented (although the Italian historian who published the evidence has been hounded by the Right).
As head of Japan's notorious Unit 731 (a covert organic and chemical war analysis and growth device of the Imperial Japanese Military in the course of The second world war), Dr.
A man that provides the seem firm on eliminating Puerto Rico through a cancer infestation would not appear a satisfying candidate to be chosen by the United States to be in fee of chemical war jobs and obtain a seat on the U.S.
The most commonly used equipment included the HazMatID[TM], HAPSITE[R] (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry), AP2Ce chemical war agent detector, improved chemical agent monitor (ICAM), and MultiRAE[R] gas detector.
A PETITION started by a Coventry woman calling for America to be held accountable for chemical war atrocities in Vietnam has amassed half a million names.
drug woes ("It's a chemical war waged against our people," proclaims one D.E.A.
As head of Japan's well known Device 731 (a hidden biological and chemical war evaluation and development system of the Imperial Japanese Military in the course of The second world war), Dr.
A guy that offers the seem hell-bent on killing Puerto Rico by means of a cancer invasion would certainly not appear a satisfying prospect to be elected by the US to be in fee of chemical war tasks and obtain a seat on the United States Atomic Energy Payment, right?
It was only the reluctance of Congress and the discovery that the Soviet Union was preparing for a chemical war that prevented the total elimination of the Chemical Corps at that time.
The Jordanian Prime Minister, Abdullah Ensour, spoke last week about a "technical assistance" that the USA is offering to his country in fear of "chemical wars." Within forty-eight hours of this statement, images of these war victims were splashed on the satellite channels all over the world!
"We are ready for the possibilities of chemical wars. U.N.

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