aspiration pneumonia

(redirected from Chemical pneumonitis)
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as·pi·ra·tion pneu·mo·ni·a

bronchopneumonia resulting from the inhalation of foreign material, usually food particles or vomit, into the bronchi; pneumonia developing secondary to the presence in the airways of fluid, blood, saliva, or gastric contents.

aspiration pneumonia

An infectious process characterised by inhalation of colonised oropharyngeal material into the respiratory tract, which most commonly occurs in patients with impaired sensorium.

Aetiology
• Hospital acquired—Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, mixed oropharyngeal flora.
• Community acquired—Streptococcus pneumoniae, H influenzae, mixed oropharyngeal flora.

Clinical findings
Progressive respiratory depression, hypoxia, tachypnoea and tachycardia; the tracheobronchial tree “sweats” a thin frothy fluid.

Risk factors
Poor oral hygiene, clouded sensorium (drugs, alcohol, anaesthesia, coma, CVA, seizures), impaired gag reflex (intubation, myopathy, neurologic disorders, tracheostomy, vocal cord paralysis), oesophageal dysfunction (achalasia, strictures, tumours), others (elderly, feeding tube, delayed gastric emptying, critical illness).

Mortality
Up to 70%.

aspiration pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonitis Pulmonology A condition characterized by the inhalation or inappropriate passage of highly acidic gastric content–food, gastric acid, vomitus-into the respiratory tract, a clinical event most common in the comatose; after the insult, there is progressive respiratory depression, hypoxia, tachypnea, and tachycardia; the tracheobronchial tree 'sweats' thin frothy fluid; lung parenchyma is acutely inflamed, hemorrhagic and edematous with atelectasis and necrosis Mortality Up to 70%. See Gastric aspiration, Pneumonia.

as·pi·ra·tion pneu·mo·nia

(as-pir-ā'shŭn nū-mō'nē-ă)
Bronchopneumonia resulting from the inhalation of foreign material, usually food particles or vomitus, into the bronchi; pneumonia developing secondary to the presence in the airways of fluid, blood, saliva, or gastric contents.

aspiration pneumonia

Pneumonia caused by the inhalation of infected or irritating material, such as vomited stomach contents.

Patient discussion about aspiration pneumonia

Q. What Causes Aspiration Pneumonia? My father is hospitalized with aspiration pneumonia. What causes this?

A. Aspiration pneumonia is a pneumonia that develops due to the entrance of foreign material that enter the bronchial tree (air tubes), usually oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions). Aspiration pneumonia represents a either a bacterial infection or a chemical inflammatory process due to inadequate swallowing mechanism.

More discussions about aspiration pneumonia
References in periodicals archive ?
Respiratory symptoms can progress to chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, and death (5,6).
The effect of LPR in the pediatric airway might be mediated by one or all of three mechanisms: (1) microaspiration with stimulation of the laryngeal adductor reflux, (2) micro-aspiration with chemical pneumonitis, and (3) stimulation of an esophageal-vagal and/or autonomic reflex that results in or potentiates bronchial constriction.
The most dangerous complication of enteral feeding is aspiration of formula, possibly causing a chemical pneumonitis.|6~ The residents reported to be at greatest risk for aspiration are: older adults with lowered level of consciousness, those receiving mechanical ventilation, those with delayed gastric emptying, and those with poor cough and gag reflexes.|7~
Eight patients met the case definition for chemical pneumonitis (i.e., bilateral infiltrates suggestive of chemical pneumonitis and pulse oximetry <95% on room air).