Nowadays encephalitis due to measles, mumps and rubella have been nearly abolished with vaccinations, now what we are getting are due to recently detected viruses like JE, Chandipura virus
, nipah virus, for which vaccination only available for JE.
We tested serum and urine samples from the index case-patient and serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the third case-patient for Japanese encephalitis virus (5), West Nile virus (6), Chandipura virus
(7), and enteroviruses (8) using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR); for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses using CDC Trioplex qRT-PCR; and for rubella using RT-PCR (9).
Thirty CSF specimens examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for flaviviruses and 13 examined more specifically for West Nile virus also were negative, as were 23 evaluated for Chandipura virus
. Fourteen CSF specimens evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation for enteroviruses did not demonstrate evidence of infection.
Recent experimental studies carried out by the author have shown that the mosquitoes are susceptible to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), WNV (Eg101), Chandipura virus
(CHPV) and Chittoor (CHITV, Batai group) virus (Sudeep unpublished data).
(CHPV) is a vesiculovirus in the Rhabdoviridae family.
There are more than twenty serotypes in this viral genus, but only four are important as human pathogens (2 strains of VSV, Chandipura virus
, and Piry virus).
Some vesiculoviruses, including Chandipura virus
and vesicular stomatitis virus, are also zoonotic and cause acute diseases in humans.
Growth and transovarial transmission of Chandipura virus
(Rhabdoviridae:Vesiculovirus) in Phlebotomus papatasi.
The Chandipura virus
was discovered in 1966 by Bhatt and Rodrigues, scientists of the Virus Research Centre (VRC) established by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1952 in Poona (now Pune) (1).
([dagger]) The following viruses were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus (HSV-3), Epsetin-Barr virus (human herpesvirus [HHV] type 4), cytomegalovirus (HHV-5), (HHV-6), HHV-7, HHV-8, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, rubella virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Nipah virus, measles virus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, Chikungunya virus, Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, echovirus, enterovirus, lyssaviruses, and Chandipura virus
. Bacteria were tested by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA, followed by sequencing.
(CHPV) belongs to family Rhabdoviridae, a hitherto unimportant virus from the standpoint of public health, has been implicated in outbreaks occurred in several districts of Andhra Pradesh (AP), Maharashtra and Gujarat during 20032004, killing more than 200 children (1,2).
Vertical and venereal transmission of Chandipura virus
(Rhabdoviridae) by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).