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Abbreviation for:
Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection (Healthcare Commission) (Medspeak-UK)
Commission for Healthcare Audit and Improvement (Healthcare Commission) (Medspeak-UK)
continuous hepatic artery infusion


(in-fu'zhon ) [L. infusio, a pouring into, watering]
1. Any liquid substance (other than blood) introduced into the body for therapeutic purposes.
2. Steeping a substance in hot or cold water in order to obtain its active principle.
3. The product obtained from the process of steeping.

bone marrow infusion

An obsolete term for intraosseous infusion.

continuous infusion

A controlled method of intravenous administration of drugs, fluids, or nutrients given without interruption, instead of by bolus. By adjusting the infusion rate, precise medication dosages or quantities of fluids can be given over time. Therapies administered continuously include some antibiotics, cancer chemotherapies, heparin, insulin, parenteral nutrition, and vasopressors, among others.

continuous hepatic artery infusion

Abbreviation: CHAI
The use of an infusion pump to provide a continuous supply of chemotherapeutic agents to the hepatic artery to control metastases from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.

continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

Abbreviation: CSII
Administration of insulin under the skin continuously with an infusion pump connected to a needle inserted beneath the epidermis.
See: insulin pump

intraosseous infusion

A method of obtaining immediate access to the circulation by inserting a needle through the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and periosteum into the marrow cavity of a long bone, usually the proximal tibia. Once access is gained, substances may be injected into the bone marrow, where they are absorbed almost immediately into the general circulation. This avenue of access does not collapse in the presence of shock. Synonym: intraosseous injection

Patient care

Drugs infused intraosseously should be followed by a bolus of 5 mL or more of normal saline.

Enlarge picture

intravenous infusion

The injection into a vein of a solution, drugs, or blood components. See: illustration


Many liquid preparations are given by intravenous (IV) infusion. Those commonly used include isotonic (normal) saline, lactated Ringer, dextrose 5% in water, and potassium chloride 0.2% in 5% dextrose. The type and quantity depend on the needs of the patient. The solution is usually given continuously at the rate of 1 to 2 or more liters per day. In shock, however, rapid infusion of larger volumes may be necessary to support the circulation.


Intravenous infusion is usually given in the arm through the median basilic or median cephalic vein, but veins at various other sites may be used. The vein must be exposed if a cannula is used. Introduction of solution should be at the rate required to deliver the needed amount of fluid and contained electrolytes, medicines, or nutrients in a prescribed time.


Intravenous infusions should be discontinued or infusion fluid replenished when the solution being administered is depleted. Clotting of blood in the catheter may occur when the infusion is not continuous.

Patient care

Using scrupulous aseptic technique and universal precautions, the nurse prepares the IV infusion, selects and prepares a venous site, disinfects the skin, inserts an IV catheter or cannula to initiate the infusion (if an IV access is not in place), and secures it in place, restraining joint motion near the insertion site as necessary. The amount of fluid to be infused per hour is calculated and the flow of the prescribed fluid (and additive as appropriate) initiated at the desired flow rate. A pump or controller is typically used to ensure desired volume delivery. After initiating the infusion, the nurse ensures that the correct fluid is being administered at the designated flow rate and observes the infusion site and the patient at least every hour for signs of infiltration or other complications, such as infection, thrombophlebitis, fluid or electrolyte overload, and air embolism. The site dressing and administration set are changed according to protocol. Central venous catheters and lines are associated with more infections and more serious infections and other complications than peripheral catheters and lines. Strict protocols have been developed for their care.

lipid infusion

Hyperalimentation with a fat-containing solution administered intravenously.

neuraxial infusion

An invasive approach to the relief of unremitting pain in which analgesic drugs are injected directly into the spinal fluid.

subcutaneous infusion

The infusion of solutions into the subcutaneous space.

continuous hepatic artery infusion

Abbreviation: CHAI
The use of an infusion pump to provide a continuous supply of chemotherapeutic agents to the hepatic artery to control metastases from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
See also: infusion
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