DNA replication

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DNA replication

The formation of new and, hopefully, identical copies of complete genomes. DNA replication occurs every time a cell divides to form two daughter cells. Under the influence of enzymes, DNA unwinds and the two strands separate over short lengths to form numerous replication forks, each of which is called a replicon. The separated strands are temporarily sealed with protein to prevent re-attachment. A short RNA sequence called a primer is formed for each strand at the fork. These primers provide a free 3'-OH end on which the new complementary sequence can be formed along the strand. The LEADING STRAND is synthesized continuously in the 5’ to 3’ direction, working towards the fork direction with removal of the RNA primers as the parental duplex is unwound. The LAGGING STRAND is synthesized discontinuously in the opposite direction as short fragments called Okazaki fragments. Lagging strand synthesis requires extension of the primer, then removal of the primers and gap filling. At least 20 different enzymes and factors, including DNA helicases, DNA polymerases, RNA primases, DNA TOPOISOMERASES and DNA ligases are involved in the complex process of DNA replication.

DNA replication

see DNA.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although normal life-course processes, such as aging and cellular replication, shorten telomeres, sustained psychosocial stress accelerates this process," explained lead researcher TomAaAaAeA s Cabeza de Baca, (http://www.
6) Their importance is therefore critical in supporting normal cellular replication.
CRLX101 inhibits topoisomerase 1 (topo 1), which is involved in cellular replication, and also inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1?
Such processes include cellular replication (cell cycle), apoptosis cell morphology, migration, and the expression of proteins such as oncology-related kinases which are known to be dysfunctional in many cancers.
In other words, when alveolar epithelial cells (Types I and II) experience programmed cell death (apoptosis), cellular replication and proliferation cease and the cells are not replaced.
Short sections of DNA at the end of the chromosome which serve as a buffer during cellular replication.
Culturing VA-13 and VL-17A cells in the presence of 25 mM ethanol (slightly higher than legal intoxication) for 3 days resulted in decreased cellular replication and increased cell death but had no effect on proteasome activity.
BrdU uptake experiments are therefore an effective indicator of cellular replication and proliferation.
All that progesterone does is slow down cellular replication in the uterus, but it increases the rate of cell replication in the breast and probably in the ovaries as well.
He works through the interactions of water, cations and proteins with DNA, and then describes DNA's cellular replication, mutations, unscheduled decay, reactivity, repair and recombination.
The patent outlines the application of cellular replication systems to achieve commercially viable ultra high speed sequencing technology.
Evidence suggests that the abbreviated telomeres of adult stem cells might factor against efficient cellular replication after transplantation, while the lengthy telomeres of embryonic cells would promote rapid replication.

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