cell structure

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cell structure

see CELL.

cell structure

common intracellular features (nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane) and organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, mitochondria, microtubules, Golgi apparatus) which facilitate specialist function (see Table 1)
Table 1: Cell organelles
StructureCharacteristic
Cell membraneBimolecular lipid and protein membrane that surrounds the cell
• Bi-layer of non-polar lipid molecules (phosphatidylcholine, phospharidylethanolamine, cholesterol) that acts as a barrier to water and hydrophilic solutes
• Proteins:
  • Structural proteins

  • Protein pumps that actively transport ions such as sodium out of the cell

  • Carrier proteins that carry molecules such as glucose into the cell

  • Ion channel proteins, such as sodium ion channels in nerve fibres to which molecules of local anaesthetic attach to prevent the passage of the pain-inducing nerve impulse

  • Receptor proteins, such as insulin receptors which facilitate the passage of glucose into the cell

  • Immunoglobulin proteins, which form part of the immune response mechanism

  • Enzyme proteins, such as alkaline phosphatase

Cell cytoplasmThe gel-like matter contained within the membrane envelop:
• Contains and supports specialized organelles, including the cell nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and lysozomes
• Stores substances (glycogen and lipids)
• Synthesizes and metabolizes essential substances (amino acids, fatty acids, monosaccharides)
• Synthesizes and translates protein
• Contains microtubules which help maintain the form of the cell and form intercommunication channels between organelles
Cell cytoskeletonA complex network of structural elements (microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments) which determine the shape of the cell, its ability to move and its response to external stimuli
Cell nucleusPresent in all eukaryotic cells capable of mitosis
Contains the cell genome (DNA) and the means of replication and transcription of RNA
Separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelop (which disappears during mitosis and meiosis)
Contains the nucleolus, where ribosomes are synthesized
Intercellular connectionsThere are two types of intercellular connections: tight junctions and gap junctions
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)Structures (receptor integrins, immunoglobulin adhesion molecules, Ca+-dependent cadherins and carbohydrate-binding selectins) within the cell membrane that bond to laminins within the extracellular matrix to attach adjacent cells to one another and to the basal membrane
References in periodicals archive ?
Traditional HCS methods detect perturbed phenotypes but do not identify the specific changes in cell organization underlying them; thus, results also cannot be easily compared across different HCS systems.
Cells treated with IGF-1, mechanical stretch, or a combination of both were tested through parameters of cell organization, cytoskeletal organization, collagen expression, collagenase expression, cell proliferation, and signal transduction using Pierce Assays, Western Blots, and confocal microscopy.
Cell organization is three-dimensional, and we could even add a fourth dimension: time; but the manipulation of information in two or three dimensions is difficult.
The survey requested information about involvement in each of the five broad activities that make up a complete just-in-time system, including total quality management, uniform plant loading, set-up time reduction, work cell organization and supplier certification.
The EMBO Meeting 2016 will provide the opportunity to be brought up to date on methods and theories of cell organization by the world's leading investigators, said Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Section Chief of the Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, NIH, Bethesda, US, who will be giving the opening lecture at the meeting.
To achieve a mechanistic understanding of how cell organization is regulated, we will develop methods to manipulate cytoskeletal interactions in space and time and study the effects of such manipulation on functional cytoskeletal organization in the confinement of both artificial systems and cells.
Another, from Linda Thomas, Executive Director for the Austin Sickle Cell Association, discusses her husband's battle with Sickle Cell disease and the very personal reasons they started the local sickle cell organization.
In addition to meeting the performance requirements of increasingly popular 800-MHz microprocessor units (MPUs), this new technology incorporates a shallow triple-well structure and a stacked memory cell organization (2), both of which provide Mitsubishi Electric's new synchronous SRAM with dramatically improved resistance to cosmic-ray-induced soft errors.
A group of fuel cell organizations have entered into a cooperative agreement designed to advance commercialization of fuel cells worldwide.
Figure 4-5: India - Fuel Cell Organizations by Type (%), 2006
WASHINGTON -- The Genetics Policy Institute (GPI) will honor two Michigan stem cell organizations, Michigan Citizens for Stem Cell Research & Cures and Cure Michigan at its 5th annual Stem Cell Action Awards dinner on Tuesday, September 22, at the Hilton Baltimore as part of the 2009 World Stem Cell Summit in Baltimore, Maryland.
WASHINGTON -- The Genetics Policy Institute (GPI) will honor Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), two leading Michigan stem cell organizations and two patient-advocates who serve on the Maryland Stem Cell Commission at its 5th annual Stem Cell Action Awards dinner on Tuesday, September 22, at the Baltimore Hilton as part of the 2009 World Stem Cell Summit in Baltimore, Maryland.