cloning

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clon·ing

(klōn'ing),
1. Growing a colony of genetically identical cells or organisms in vitro.
2. Transplantation of a nucleus from a somatic cell to an ovum, which then develops into an embryo; many identical embryos can thus be generated by asexual reproduction.
3. Replication of genetically identical embryos by microsurgical division of a blastocyst and implantation of resulting cells in animal wombs for gestation.
4. "Therapeutic" cloning: growth of somatic stem cells in an embryo that has been produced by fertilization in vitro and modified by replacement of its nuclear material with DNA from a host with deficient or diseased tissue (for example, heart, liver, pancreas). Subsequent harvesting of the stem cells for implantation in the host subject results in destruction of the embryo.
5. A recombinant DNA technique used to produce millions of copies of a DNA fragment. The fragment is spliced into a cloning vehicle (that is, plasmid, bacteriophage, or animal virus). The cloning vehicle penetrates a bacterial cell or yeast (the host), which is then grown in vitro or in an animal host. In some cases, as in the production of genetically engineered drugs, the inserted DNA becomes activated and alters the chemical functioning of the host cell.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
The generation of an exact living replica of an organism’s DNA—DNA cloning—or a cell—cell cloning—produced asexually from a single ancestor
Biotechnology DNA cloning in recombinant technology, DNA manipulation to produce multiple copies of a single gene or DNA segment
Genetics The process of asexually producing a group of genetically identical cells or clones, all from a single ancestor
Molecular biology The production of multiple, genetically identical molecules of DNA, cells, or organisms, which involves reverse transcription of purified mRNA into the corresponding cDNA before insertion into a vector, the synthesis of multiple copies of a DNA sequence, previously introduced into E coli, grown in the bacteria in culture media, removed, and DNA segments of interest isolated
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

clon·ing

(klōn'ing)
1. Growing a colony of genetically identical cells or organisms in vitro.
2. Transplantation of a nucleus from a somatic cell to an oocyte, which then develops into an embryo; many identical embryos can thus be generated by asexual reproduction.
3. Replication of genetically identical embryos by microsurgical division of a blastocyst and implantation of resulting cells in animal wombs for gestation.
4. Therapeutic cloning: growth of somatic stem cells in an embryo that has been produced by in vitro fertilization and modified by replacement of its nuclear material with DNA from a host with deficient or diseased tissue (e.g., heart, liver, pancreas); subsequent harvesting of the stem cells for implantation in the host subject destroys the embryo.
5. A recombinant DNA technique used to produce millions of copies of a DNA fragment. The fragment is spliced into a cloning vehicle (i.e., plasmid, bacteriophage, or animal virus). The cloning vehicle penetrates a bacterial cell or yeast (the host), which is then grown in vitro or in an animal host. In some cases, as in the production of genetically engineered drugs, the inserted DNA becomes activated and alters the chemical functioning of the host cell.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

cloning

specialized technology for the generation of identical copies of DNA molecules or of genetically identical copies of cells or organisms. See CLONE, THERAPEUTIC CLONING, CELL CULTURE, RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY, DOLLY the sheep.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Australia's state and national governments have agreed to uniform legislation banning human cloning while leaving the door open for human stem cell cloning for medical research.
TALEN-mediated MSTN editing cells (#9 colonies) were used as nuclear donors for somatic cell cloning. The cleavage rates for TALEN-modified embryos were 73.1% (Table 1).
Dr Donald Bruce, director of the Society, Religion and Technology Project of the Church of Scotland, said: 'We don't think anyone should be doing cell cloning research until at least there is a UN ban on reproductive human cloning.'
Half of the 1,000 individuals surveyed said they would support reproducing human cells in the interest of science, and 55% said they would support animal cell cloning for the same purpose.
On the one hand we are progressing and with the human genome map and human cell cloning we may have cures for all our illnesses - but we may not have a planet to live to a ripe old age on.
Effects of donor cell type and genotype on the efficiency of mouse somatic cell cloning. Biol.
"The potential benefit of therapeutic cell cloning will be enormous, and this research should not be associated with the human cloning activists," the authors wrote.
On the one hand we are progressing and, with the human genome map and human cell cloning we may have cures for all our illnesses, but we may not have a planet to live to a ripe old age on.