cephalosporin

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cephalosporin

 [sef″ah-lo-spor´in]
any of a large group of broad-spectrum antibiotics from Acremonium (formerly Cephalosporium), a genus of soil-inhabiting fungi. Cephalosporins are similar in structure and antimicrobial action to penicillin. The cephalosporins have been classified by “generations” according to general features of antimicrobial activity, with successive generations having increasing activity against gram-negative organisms and decreasing activity against gram-positive organisms.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

ceph·a·lo·spo·rin

(sef'ă-lō-spōr'in),
Antibiotic produced by a Cephalosporium, but after the antibiotic was discovered the name Cephalosporium was changed to Acremonium.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

cephalosporin

(sĕf-ə-lə-spôr′ĭn)
n.
Any of various beta-lactam antibiotics, derived from the fungus Acremonium chrysogenum or made semisynthetically, used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

cephalosporin

Infectious disease Any of a family of broad-spectrum tetracyclic triterpene antibiotics derived from Cephalosporium spp, which are similar chemically and in mechanism of action to penicillin Indications Skin and soft tissue infections, RTIs, UTIs, STDs, meningitis, endocarditis, septicemia of unknown portal of entry, anaerobic infections, polymicrobial infections Pharmacokinetics Absorbed orally, excreted by the dustributed in tissues Adverse reactions Hypersensitivity, rash, serum sickness, acute tubular damage. See Fourth-generation cephalosporin.
Cephalosporin generations
1st
IV agents–Cephalothin, cephaloridine
2nd
Oral agents, which had a longer half-life
3rd
↑ antibacterial spectrum to include H influenzae, anaerobic bacteria, eg Bacteroides fragilis
4th
Not all authors use the term ; further; ↑ antibacterial spectrum to include Pseudomonas species<</dd>
.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ceph·a·lo·spo·rin

(sef'ă-lō-spōr'in)
Antibiotic produced by a Cephalosporium, but after the antibiotic was discovered the name Cephalosporium was changed to Acremonium.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

cephalosporin

One of a range of antibiotics first obtained from a Cephalosporium fungus found in the sea near a sewage outflow. Their chemical structure is very similar to that of the penicillins and many semisynthetic forms have been developed. Their toxicity is low and they are effective against a wide range of organisms. Unfortunately, the spelling of cephalosporin drug names shows an apparently arbitrary distribution of ‘ceph’, ‘cep’ and ‘cef’, with a strong tendency to the latter, assisted by the recent requirement to adopt European nomenclature regulations.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann

ceph·a·lo·spo·rin

(sef'ă-lō-spōr'in)
Antibiotic produced by a Cephalosporium.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012