Hughes-Fulford, "Effects of gravitational mechanical unloading in endothelial cells: association between caveolins
, inflammation and adhesion molecules," Scientific Reports, vol.
and cavins in the trafficking, maturation, and degradation of caveolae: Implications for cell physiology," American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, vol.
Caveolae are plasma membrane microdomains, composed by cholesterol, sphingolipids, and different coat proteins named caveolins
, considered anchor points to molecules (in this context, insulin receptor and GLUT4), facilitating their interaction, in order to activate cell signaling and transport [91-93].
Human PTRF mutations cause secondary deficiency of caveolins
resulting in muscular dystrophy with generalized lipodystrophy.
Lisanti, "Role of caveolae and caveolins
in health and disease," Physiological Reviews, vol.
like CAV2 and CAV3 act as scaffolding proteins within caveolar membranes that interact directly with G-protein alpha subunits and can functionally regulate their activity.
Caveolae consist of scaffolding proteins called caveolins
are a 21 to 24kDa family of membrane proteins that consist of three members; caveolin-1 (CAV-1) is abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, and caveolin-3 (CAV-3) is primarily expressed in muscle cells .
and flotillins are two families of the membrane proteins correlating with Caveolae of the mammals (Bickel et al., 1997).
, cavins, and endothelial cell function: new insights.
Basal-Like Subtypes.--These tumors express basal/ myoepithelial cell genes, such as CK5, CK14, CK17, caveolins
1 and 2, nestin, P-cadherin, CD44, and EGFR.
Ogawa et al., "Human PTRF mutations cause secondary deficiency of caveolins
resulting in muscular dystrophy with generalized lipodystrophy," Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
Caveolae are characterized by expression of Caveolins
(Cav-1, -2, and -3), a class of transmembrane proteins (21-24 kDa) that are essential for caveolae formation [17,18].