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The 22-kD transmembrane protein associated with the membranes of caveolae and with Golgi membranes; believed to function in signal transduction, in cholesterol transport, and metabolism of the cell.
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Several responsible genes have been identified: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2, CGL1) (3), Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 (BSCL2, CGL2) (4), caveolin 1 (CAV1, CGL3) (5), and polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF, CGL4) (6, 7).
Park et al., "Caveolin 1 expression correlates with poor prognosis and focal adhesion kinase expression in gastric cancer," Pathobiology, vol.
Further, when the cell fractionation is performed with Brij97 detergent, TM4SF5 is recovered from a different fraction than the one containing lipid rafts that are enriched with caveolin 1. Collectively, these data suggest that [T.sub.5]ERMs are different from lipid rafts and focal adhesions and that they are located either at membrane boundaries or at internal membranes based on dynamic binding partner exchanges.
KDM5B has been labelled a potential target for cancer treatment because it has also been shown to promote tumorigenesis by targeting and silencing tumour suppressors such as p21, breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), estrogen receptor (ER), forkhead box 1 (FOXA1), carbon tetrachloride (CCL4), and caveolin 1 in some human malignancies [77].
Guo et al., "Caveolin 1 knockdown inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human breast cancer BT474 cells," Molecular Medicine Reports, vol.
Zhao, "The expression and functionality of stromal caveolin 1 in human adenomyosis," Human Reproduction, vol.
[4] Human genes: APOA5, apolipoprotein A-V; PDGFRB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta; LDLRAP1, low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1; MMP9, matrix metallopeptidase 9; VEGFA, vascular endothelial growth factor A; ACTA2, actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta; APOC3, apolipoprotein C-III; CAV1, caveolin 1; CD40, CD40 molecule; CETP, cholesterol ester transfer protein, plasma; CIITA, class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator; FGG, fibrinogen gamma chain; GPX1, glutathione peroxidase 1; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; MBL2, mannose-binding lectin (protein C)2,soluble; MVK, mevalonate kinase; PITX2, paired like homeodomain 2; TNFRSF1A, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A; UCP2, uncoupling protein 2 (mitochondrial, protein carrier).
We observed that most circulation related terms contain caveolin 1 (CAV1), myosin, light chain 3, alkali (MYL3), endothelin 2 (EDN2), and NOS3 genes.
The increased levels of caveolin 1 in MVE has a cardioprotective effect in ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage, probably due to the increased endothelial NO release [5].
The NOS enzyme activity is controlled by the regulatory protein caveolin 1. Caveolin 1 binds to the protein calmodulin, which results in inhibition of NOS.
Caveolin 1 and Caveolin 2 are associated with breast cancer basal-like and triple-negative immunophenotype.
Such is the case in individuals with CGL, who have germ line transmission of mutations in genes such as 1acylglycerol 3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2) [8], Berardinelli Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 (BSCL2) [9], and Caveolin 1 (CAV1) 10].