Besides mutations in the BMPR2, ALK1, and ENG genes, rare mutations that account for approximately 5% of the heritable PAHs included SMAD9, caveolin 1
(CAV1), and potassium channel, subfamily K, member 3 (KCNK3) genes.
We observed that most circulation related terms contain caveolin 1
(CAV1), myosin, light chain 3, alkali (MYL3), endothelin 2 (EDN2), and NOS3 genes.
A further example of aging dysfunction related to cell senescence is shown by the scaffolding protein Caveolin 1
(Cav1), which controls molecular signaling in caveolar membranes.
The increased levels of caveolin 1
in MVE has a cardioprotective effect in ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage, probably due to the increased endothelial NO release .
binds to the protein calmodulin, which results in inhibition of NOS.
Galbiati, "Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase 1 by caveolin 1
promotes stress-induced premature senescence," EMBO Reports, vol.
In addition, VEGF, maspin, osteopontin, integrin [beta]4, caveolin 1 and 2, and P-cadherin have all been reported to be expressed preferentially in breast cancers with basal-like morphology.
Caveolin 1 and Caveolin 2 are associated with breast cancer basal-like and triple-negative immunophenotype.
These include CD109, (4,5) caveolin 1 and 2, (6,7) podoplanin, (8) P-cadherin, (9,10) maspin, (11-13) nestin, (14) p75, (15-17) 14-3-3 sigma (stratifin), (18) smooth muscle actin (SMA), (19) p63, (20) CD10, (21) smooth muscle myosin heavy chains (SMMHCs), (22,23) h-caldesmon, (23) calponin, (23) S100, (24-26) basal type and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins, (27) glial fibrillary acid protein, (28,29) metallothionein, (12) Wilms tumor 1 protein, (30) CD44s, (31) and vimentin, (32) among others.
Caveolin 1 is overexpressed and amplified in a subset of basal-like and metaplastic breast carcinomas: a morphologic, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization analysis.
Nine candidates failed the initial criteria, such as assay length or unsuitable CpG site location for primer and probe placement [BCOR, BCL6 co-repressor; CAV1, caveolin 1
, caveolae protein, 22kDa; CD44, CD44 molecule (Indian blood group); CDH13, cadherin 13, H-cadherin (heart); VCAN (formerly CSPG2), versican; FCGR2A, Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIa, receptor (CD32); GSK3B, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; PCDH17, protocadherin 17; and TAF11, TAF11 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 28kDa].