To understand and to exploit causal relationships
more effectively, strategic decision makers must take a pluralistic approach to comprehending causes.
However, as time goes by, the relative causal relationships
might be changed due to different perceptions and understanding of the patient safety culture perceived by experts.
Though much of this is simply questionable intelligence, the excerpt also offers evidence of questionable causal relationships
, as this NIE was evaluating the possibility of an anti-Castro uprising.
Thus, the causal relationships
in a hypothesized mediation process, the simultaneous nature of the indirect and direct effects, and the dual role the mediator plays as both a cause for the outcome and an effect of the intervention are more appropriately expressed using structural equations than using regression analysis.
Table 1 Granger causality testing results Observations F-statistics p-value MS does not Granger Cause MB 125 2.18650 0.0933 MB docs not Granger Cause M2 125 2.68666 0.0497 IP_ CR does not Granger Cause M2 126 4.46532 0.0135 MS does not Granger Cause IP_CR 126 4.75212 0.0103 CPI does not Granger Cause MS 127 3.18623 0.0767 MS dues not Granger Cause CPI 127 8.48658 0.0042 The causal relationships
that are bolded indicate the rejected null hypothesis, which occurs when we refuse negative claims about the causal relationships
within the meaning of the Granger causality concept.
Holmlund, Lindahl, and Plug find that, despite the methodological problems inherent in many of the tools and techniques used to establish the causal relationship
between parents' education levels and those of their children, the studies have been successful in the sense that they provide many new insights into the process by which parents transmit education to their children.
The analysis (Table 1) using grounded theory revealed that the product development tools that were studied are limited to internal causal relationships
(main condition, organic structure; main context, internal structure; main strategy, cost; and main consequence, internal performance) with the phenomenon being studied.
The research team also found modest relationships supporting a causal relationship
between intake of several other foods and vitamins and heart disease risk, including fish, omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, folate, whole grains, alcohol, fruits, fibre and dietary vitamins E and C and beta carotene.
To document the causal relationships
among aggregate consumption, output, and investment, I first estimate the following equations by ordinary least squares (6):
The National Panel is an independent body that strives to provide comprehensive and unbiased reviews and analyses, and which applies rigorous, systematic, and transparent research review methods in order to evaluate the scientific evidence for causal relationships
between interventions and outcomes.
Issues that emerge as pressure points over decades then often behave like dominoes, cascading in causal relationships
that affect multiple organizations.
(2004) appropriately acknowledged that their study was a hypothesis-generating study and they did not attempt to draw conclusions about causal relationships