Definition 3: The partial causal relation
'[[right arrow].sub.E']' is the least partial order relation satisfying the two following properties:
Note also that case (iii) is fatal to the intuitively appealing, but illusory idea that if an initial correlation between two factors, say x and z, disappears when we control for a third factor y, then there cannot be any direct causal relation
between x and z.
Since singular causal relations
are necessary for the manifestation of a power, it follows that a dispositionalist account of the causal relation
is not available.
We start by looking at the causal relation
between the two real variables, real money and real income.
Legs may be considered as necessary for the existence of certain kind of tables but this kind of relation is not a causal relation
. Moreover, tables and legs as continuants are not suitable relata for causal relations
because it is widely believed that causality holds between events which have temporal parts.
The causal relation
between the stock A and the flow F is a relation of information transmission.
* "Results of these studies to date give no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relation
between RF [radiofrequency] exposure and any adverse health effect" (Ahlbom et al.
Notwithstanding the fact that this environment is inhospitable to tigers, that there is no demonstrated causal relation
between my (delusional) behaviors and the absence of tigers, I still believe my program has been effective.
Under Washington law, there is a four-factor test for determining whether an injury arises out of "use" of a car or truck: (1) there must be a causal relation
or connection between the injury and the use of the insured vehicle; (2) the person asserting coverage must be in reasonably close geographic proximity to the insured vehicle, although the person need not be actually touching it; (3) the person must be vehicle oriented rather than highway or sidewalk oriented at the time; and (4) the person must also be engaged in a transaction essential to the sue of the vehicle at the time.
That he labels as false the theory that there is a causal relation
between Islam, monolithically assumed, and science, largely ill-defined, gives us good reason to believe that error in scope or methodology of the question is what Gutas wishes to highlight.
Any causal relation
between long-term oral contraception and cervical cancer would be most important in the developing world, where cervical cancer is common and few women have access to high-quality cytological screening.