In this paper, the mechanism of Mt intercalation with organic cations
and properties of organic modified Mt were studied by investigating the energy change and the order in which cations
were exchanged in the process of Mt intercalation with butylimidazole chlorides.
exchange capacities were obtained by changing the content of ion stabilizers in the slurry fluid based on the existing formula, and the designed addition of the ion stabilizer in the experiment was 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, 3.5%, 4.0%, 4.5%, 5.0%, 5.5%, and 6.0% (Group 1-10).
In spite of the presence of 1 equivalent of the bulky cations
, the powder XRD patterns (Figure 4) show broad main peaks (20) close to 14.1[degrees], 28.5[degrees], 31.9[degrees], 40.5[degrees], and 43.0[degrees] for all three materials, which can be ascribed to (110), (220), (310), (224), and (314) for tetragonal [MAPbI.sub.3] perovskite, respectively [21-23], indicating that the aromatic ammoniums are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3.
It has been widely accepted that Na-montmorillonite swells more than Ca-montmorillonite because [Ca.sup.2+] cations
are strongly adsorbed (by the clay surfaces) compared to [Na.sup.+] cations
where the subscript FP denotes that values are flocculative powers of Na or the other cations
of interest (X).
Sixty years of research on soil permeability as affected by irrigation water quality have established that the decreasing order of negative impacts of the four major cations
follows the sequence: Na > K > Mg > Ca.
2 showed that the oxygen-binding abilities of CoL were enhanced by the alkaline cations
to different extent.
We also use this model to interpret the overshooting effect appearing in swelling of macroporous superabsorbent composite in saline solution containing multivalent cations
. There are four species of water existing in the swelling process: at the beginning of the swelling process, the polyanion and the cations
from external solution are not chelate, and possess a capability of water uptake that is called [A.sub.1]; the absorbed water at each time for this hydrogel is called [A.sub.2]; the entrance of cations
from external swelling medium promotes the rearrangement of the hydrogel structure through the chelation, resulting in a more compact structure with a lower water absorption.
Previous researches on the macrocyclic ligands have provided insight into the interaction of metal cations
with crown and cryptand ethers containing mixed donor atoms.
Mg[Cl.sub.2].6[H.sub.2]O and Ca[Cl.sub.2].[H.sub.2]O salts were used for the preparation of stock solutions containing [Ca.sup.2+] or [Mg.sup.2+] cations
at the concentration range of 30-500 mg/l.
The influence of different metal cations
on the fluorescence intensity of both low and high molecular weight sensors has been investigated and discussed.
The role of divalent cations
was determined by growing Listeria biofilms on stainless steel and adding EDTA at various times.