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Employing both reflecting and refractive optical systems.
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To make it possible, in general, it is necessary to calibrate the catadioptric system. Using this information, it is possible to project the visual information onto different planes or surfaces that show different perspectives of the original scene.
The pixels in the image plane are back-projected onto the mirror (to do it, the calibration of the catadioptric system must be available) and after that, each point of the mirror is projected onto a unit sphere.
The catadioptric system has to be previously calibrated to obtain such projection.
To conclude this section, Figure 7 shows (a) an omnidirectional image captured by the catadioptric system presented in Figure 2(a) and the visual appearance of the projections calculated from this image: (b) unit sphere projection, (c) cylindrical projection, (d) perspective projection onto a vertical plane, and (e) orthographic projection.
Guerrero, "Semantic labeling for indoor topological mapping using a wearable catadioptric system," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol.