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cascade

 [kas-kād´]
a series of steps or stages (as of a physiological process) that, once initiated, continues to the final step because each step is triggered by the preceding one, resulting in amplification of the signal, information, or effect at each stage. In electronics, the term is applied to multiple amplifiers. Examples in biochemistry include blood coagulation and the complement system.
coagulation cascade the series of steps beginning with activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways of coagulation, or of one of the related alternative pathways, and proceeding through the common pathway of coagulation to the formation of the fibrin clot.
The coagulation cascade. This scheme emphasizes the understanding of 1, the importance of the tissue factor pathway in initiating clotting in vivo; 2, the interactions between pathways; and 3, the pivotal role of thrombin in sustaining the cascade by feedback activation of coagulation factors. HMWK = high-molecular-weight kininogen; PK = prekallikrein; PL = phospholipid; PT = prothrombin; TF = tissue factor; Th = thrombin. From Schafer, 1994.

cas·cade

(kas-kād'),
1. A series of sequential interactions, as of a physiologic process, which after being initiated continues to the final one; each interaction is activated by the preceding one, sometimes with cumulative effect.
2. To spill over, especially rapidly.
[Fr., fr. It. cascare, to fall]

cascade

(kăs-kād′)
n.
a. A succession of stages, processes, operations, or units.
b. Electronics A series of components or networks, the output of each of which serves as the input for the next.
c. A chemical or physiological process that occurs in successive stages, each of which is dependent on the preceding one, and often producing a cumulative effect: an enzymatic cascade.
Cardiac Arrest in Seattle: Conventional vs. Amiodarone Drug Evaluation. A trial comparing conventional therapy vs. amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic on M&M in survivors of refractory out-of-hospital ventricular arrhythmias
Conclusion Slight increase in survival free of cardiac death; resuscitated ventricular fibrillation or defibrillator shock was better with amiodarone at 2, 4, and 6 years of followup; overall mortality is high, side effects are common

cascade

Physiology A molecular system capable of self-propagation or amplification, especially of a weak signal; once a cascade is initiated, it may continue to be amplified through positive feedback loops and pathways, until down-regulated by local mechanisms–eg, by proteolytic enzymes. See Complement cascade, Ischemic cascade, Metastatic cascade.

CASCADE

Cardiology A clinical trial–Cardiac Arrest in Seattle: Conventional vs Amiodarone Drug Evaluation–that compared conventional therapy vs amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic on M&M in survivors of refractory out-of-hospital ventricular arrhythmias. See Amiodarone, Ventricular arrhythmia. Cf BASIS.

cas·cade

(kas-kād')
1. A series of sequential interactions, as of a physiologic process, which after being initiated continues to the final one; each interaction is activated by the preceding one, sometimes with cumulative effect.
2. To spill over, especially rapidly.
[Fr., fr. It. cascare, to fall]

cascade

A physiological system in which the completion of one event has an outcome that initiates the next successive event. Blood coagulation, for instance, is a cascade involving more than a dozen successive events. In genetics a cascade system controls the order in which genes are expressed.

cascade

sequential ENZYME reactions in which one activated enzyme activates the next in the sequence, which in turn amplifies the initial response, as in the COMPLEMENT system and BLOOD CLOTTING.
References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, the authors verified that the ability of MIG to resist cascade failure could be enhanced significantly by improving the capacity of a few mainstay nodes.
Following the merger, Cascade clients will continue to enjoy a highly personalized banking experience, along with new benefits.
(NYSE: PJC) served as exclusive financial advisor for Cascade.
Board of Directors, commented, "In entering into this agreement with Cascade, the Board of Prime Pacific believes that is has both obtained a solid value for our shareholders and also found an excellent partner for our customers and employees going forward.
Oregon Region President Julie Miller said that while Cascades has a consumer base, "We really are a business community bank."
"It makes perfect sense to me that Bank of the Cascades was able to raise this capital without any help from the Federal government," said Brad Malsin, principal of Beam Development in Portland where he also resides.
Amtrak Cascades operates one daily round trip between Seattle and Vancouver, B.C., and between Portland and Vancouver, B.C.
In a two-circuit cascade system, two independent refrigerating units are coupled through a heat exchanger termed a cascade condenser, where the refrigerant vapors of the low-temperature cycle are condensed, rejecting heat to the refrigerant in the high-temperature cycle.
They took six months and cost pounds 300,000 to restore but yesterday a spectacular cascade was turned off because it ran out of one essential ingredient ( water.
Ms Beddows said that despite the cascades being turned off the gardens and other attractions would remain open.
The General Accounting Office upheld the use of cascades in a 2002 case involving the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Cascades stacks are available in wave-lengths ranging from 790 nm to 980 nm and from 1435 nm to 1570 nm.