Thus the velocity of the Doppler processor output in (l,k)th channel should be calibrated according to the kth

carrier frequency [f.sub.k].

For each of the pathloss models examined, it can be seen in Figure 4 that the higher the

carrier frequency, the large the additional gain required to maintain same pathloss as the 2 GHz

carrier frequency.

In order to facilitate research, the separation interfering induced by

carrier frequency offset can obtain as,

The FFT measurement of the peak value amplitude and frequency of the spike shows that the RF pulse begins with a

carrier frequency around 300 MHz.

At the transmitter, three wireless MIMO signals [MIMO.sub.1], [MIMO.sub.2], and [MIMO.sub.3] are generated and modulated using M-QAM at the same

carrier frequency [f.sub.c] = 2.4 GHz.

The SPWM FFT shows that the first two harmonics occur at 1000 Hz and 1100 Hz, centered around the

carrier frequency at [f.sub.c] [+ or -] 2 x [f.sub.1], where [f.sub.1] is the fundamental frequency.

Equation (1) shows that the complex propagation constant of the RF signal in soil is dependent upon the

carrier frequency, composition of soil, and soil volumetric water content.

where [[zeta].sub.n] is the phase of the transmitted symbol [a.sub.n] and [[OMEGA].sub.c] is the angular

carrier frequency offset given by [[OMEGA].sub.c] = 2[pi]T[f.sub.c], with [f.sub.c] and T being the

carrier frequency offset and the symbol duration, respectively.

Carrier frequency offset arises when the oscillator at the receiver oscillates at a different frequency to that of the transmitter [17].

where S is the spectral emission mask attenuation in dB, [DELTA]f denotes the frequency offset from the center

carrier frequency, a represents the amount of relative PSD attenuation at [DELTA]f in the segment, and b is the relative PSD attenuation at the last [DELTA]f for the previous segment.

where m(t) is independent information stream with bit interval [T.sub.b], [[??].sub.c] = [[omega].sub.c] + [DELTA][omega] is the

carrier frequency, [[omega].sub.c] is the locally generated fixed reference

carrier frequency, [DELTA][omega] is the frequency offset, and n(t) is white Gaussian noise with power spectrum density [N.sub.0].

For example, the detection rate among Hispanic CFTR mutation carriers is approximately 57%, compared with approximately 80%-97% in other whites (4), whereas the Hispanic

carrier frequency of 1 in 46 is only modestly lower than that in Caucasians (1 in 29) (4).