--Preoperative data: age, sex, associated diseases and risk factors (hypertension, hyperlypoproteinemia, diabetes, smoking, clinically signifcant coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease (PAD)), medications (antiplatelet and antihypertensive drugs, statins), clinical symptoms (asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid disease), degree of stenosis and contralateral carotid artery stenosis
were determined by duplex ultrasound and computerized tomography (CT) angiography;
Carotid artery stenosis
: Gray-scale and Doppler US diagnosis - Society of radiologists in ultrasound consensus conference.
Out of 312 patients, only 70 patients who showed carotid artery disease in Carotid Doppler were enrolled in this study and subjected to transcranial Doppler to study the intracranial carotid artery stenosis
. The study revealed that 83% of cases were males and remaining 17% were females.
Moreover, studies have shown that atherosclerotic carotid arteries pose a substantial risk of ipsilateral cerebrovascular events, with reported annual ischemic stroke rates ranging from 0.35% to 1.3% in asymptomatic patients with moderate stenosis [4, 5] and from 0.5% up to 5% for severe asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis
 studied and found that cerebral blood flow improved with revascularization after internal carotid artery stripping in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis
In addition, CUS can detect carotid artery stenosis
at the neck and TCD has a poor temporal window because it cannot visualize the area when the temporal bone is too thick.
Prior studies reported changes in phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis
The decision to perform revascularization in patients with carotid artery stenosis
and the choice of treatment depends on several criteria including: severity of internal carotid artery stenosis
, age, sex, comorbidities, life expectancy and complication rate [1, 3, 4].
Clinical analysis of ocular manifestations related to carotid artery stenosis
. Chin J Ocular Fundus Dis.
Objective: To determine the frequency of atherosclerosis by ankle brachial index in patients with an ischaemic stroke and to assess the association of carotid artery stenosis
and ankle brachial index in ischaemic stroke.
(14) A restriction in flow in the carotid artery, such as with the development of atherosclerosis in carotid artery stenosis
, will, therefore, cause a reduction in the blood flow and pressure in the subsequent cranial vessels, including the CRA.
studied the natural history of asymptomatic moderate carotid artery stenosis
and reported 32% of cases progressed to severe stenosis but only 97% became symptomatic .