Agnotherium was, and is, a genus which is difficult to define, because it was erected on the basis of an isolated m1 (Kaup, 1832), and the reconstruction of the upper dentition by Kuss (1962) on the basis of specimens from Frohnstetten, was questioned by Kurten (1976) which caused much confusion by emphasizing that the reduction of the molars, in comparison to the size of the carnassial was not excessively marked.
The dimensions of the carnassial are close to those of Hecubides euryodon, although the tooth is more robust, in general it could correlate well with Bonisicyon illacabo (Fig.
According to Ginsburg and Morales (1995), Hemicyonidae with lower carnassials than those of the Phoberocyoninae, longer upper molars with a tendency towards increasing the lingual-distal cingulum turning to be more quadrangular than those found in the Phoberyocioninae, more reduced premolars except for the P4 and an increase in size throughout the Miocene.
Moreover, the carnassials, and specially the P4, are so reduced that in species like Ursus maritimus or Ursus thibetanus the protocone of the upper carnassial is almost completely reduced, in other species such as Ursus spelaeus this character is not so evident.
Medium sized Ursidae with a more primitive general morphology in the dentition than in the Ursinae and Tremarctinae, with less reduced premolars, and well-developed carnassials, except in some teeth of Ailuropoda melanoleuca, which have severe autapomorphies.
maculatus maculatus) among all three geographic regions where this subspecies occurs, except for lower carnassial length (LCL).
All five species of dasyuroids are significantly sexually size dimorphic (SSD) for all characters, except for lower carnassial length (LCL) in devils, where females are slightly larger than males.
Lower carnassial length (LCL) shows an interesting result, however.