AE and RS, Alone and Combined, Reduced the Level of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Skeletal and Cardiac Muscles of Mice after EE.
AE and RS, Alone and Combined, Activate Autophagy and Mitophagy in Mouse Skeletal and Cardiac Muscles after EE.
Moreover, the present study is the first to show that AE and RS enhance MQC, both in the resting state and after EE, through the activation of mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and biogenesis in skeletal or cardiac muscles (Figure 11).
Caption: FIGURE 2: Effects of aerobic exercise and Rhodiola sacra supplementation, alone and combined, on the expression of citrate synthase (CS) in mouse skeletal (a) and cardiac muscles (b).
It therefore quantifies the mitochondrial function of an individual and is dependent on a linked chain of processes that include pulmonary ventilation and diffusion , right and left ventricular functions , and the ability of skeletal and cardiac muscle (SCM) cells to receive and use the oxygen and nutrients delivered by the blood .
Measurement of Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Damage.
Effects of AE and RS, Alone and Combined, on Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Damage and the Underlying Mechanism
AE and RS, Alone and Combined, Ameliorate EE-Induced Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Damage.
Total RNA was prepared from the cardiac muscle of the patient and the control by the single-step method described by Chomczynski and Sacchi (7).
1 and 5, 4 and 9, and 10 and 16) were used to amplify exons 1-3, 4-5, and 6-8, respectively, of the CK-M cDNA from the cardiac muscle of the patient (8).
Total CK, CK-M, mU/g (wet weight) ng/mg of protein Control Skeletal muscle 951 000 [+ or -] 76 080 98 000 [+ or -] 7840 Cardiac muscle 516 000 [+ or -] 40 250 35 800 [+ or -] 2860 Smooth muscle 239 000 [+ or -] 17 690 1460 [+ or -] 100 Patient Skeletal muscle 94 700 [+ or -] 7390 550 [+ or -] 40 Cardiac muscle 14 500 [+ or -] 1100 103 [+ or -] 7 Smooth muscle 10 300 [+ or -] 710 5 [+ or -] 0.2 CK-B, ng/mg of protein Control Skeletal muscle 90 [+ or -] 7 Cardiac muscle 360 [+ or -] 29 Smooth muscle 6500 [+ or -] 455 Patient Skeletal muscle 1830 [+ or -] 130 Cardiac muscle 271 [+ or -] 6 Smooth muscle 1151 [+ or -] 80